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Ricciarda (Foscolo)

September 25th, 2016

La Ricciarda è una tragedia di Ugo Foscolo in cinque atti ideata prima del trasferimento dell’autore a Firenze e qui composta nell’arco di tempo che va dal settembre 1812 ai primi di giugno dell’anno successivo.

Essa venne rappresentata per la prima volta a Bologna il 17 settembre del 1813 dalla compagnia di attori diretta da Salvatore Fabbrichesi. Il ruolo principale venne dato a un’attrice non molto esperta, Carolina Cavalletti Tessari, che aveva sostituito da poco tempo la primadonna Anna Fiorilli Pellandi.

La tragedia venne pubblicata nel 1820 a Londra con una dedica a Lord John Russell per l’editore John Murray.

La tragedia, che è ambientata nel medioevo ed è versificata in endecasillabi sciolti, si svolge, secondo le unità aristoteliche, in una unica giornata. Protagonisti della vicenda sono due innamorati, Guido e Ricciarda, i cui padri si combattono ferocemente da più di trent’anni. Ricciarda è infatti figlia di Guelfo tiranno di Salerno il cui fratellastro Averardo è padre di Guido.

In una lettera a Silvio Pellico il Foscolo scrive:

Infatti la Ricciarda è, delle tre tragedie foscoliane, quella più concentrata e tesa e anche più adatta alla rappresentazione.

Il Foscolo si sarebbe ispirato per questa tragedia durante una rapida visita a Salerno nel 1812, il cui castello abbandonato colpì molto la sua fantasia.

Averardo e Guelfo pur essendo fratellastri sono nemici. Guido, figlio di Averardo ama però follemente la figlia di Guelfo, Ricciarda, e per poterle stare vicino rimane nascosto nel sepolcreto della reggia dello zio. Corrado viene mandato da Averardo inutilmente dal figlio per convincerlo a tornare presso il padre. Ricciarda intanto è combattuta tra l’amore per Guido e la pietà che prova nei confronti del padre anche se la contrasta.

Averardo si traveste da Corrado, riesce ad avere un colloquio con Guelfo e cerca di spaventarlo dicendogli che Salerno

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, di cui Guelfo è il signore, è piena di nemici bavarici pronti a sostenere Averardo contro di lui

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; gli propone un patto: Guelfo dominerà su Salerno, le mura e il mare, Averardo su Avellino e Benevento e Guido sposerà Ricciarda.

Averardo, grazie a Corrado, riesce ad incontrarsi con il figlio Guido nel sepolcreto. Guido desidererebbe che il padre fosse il vincitore della lotta fratricida, anche se sa che questo non può procurargli gioia. Entra in scena Guelfo con la figlia Ricciarda alla quale viene chiesto di decidere ed ella fa giuramento che non sarà sposa di Guido ma che seguirà la madre presso la sua tomba per finire la sua triste esistenza. Guelfo annuncia la guerra contro il fratello.

Ricciarda dice a Guido che se non potrà essere sua non sarà nemmeno del signore straniero al quale il padre l’ha promessa sposa e che ha deciso di farsi monaca. Ricciarda viene consegnata ad un fedele scudiero perché venga custodita e tenuta in salvo e intanto ha inizio la battaglia.

Guelfo viene vinto e si reca al sepolcreto dove trova Ricciarda che non vuole svelargli dove si trovi Guido. Guelfo, sospettando che Guido si trovi nascosto tra le tombe, grida di avere ucciso la donna da lui amata e a quel punto Guido esce fuori dal suo nascondiglio e trovatosi davanti a Guelfo viene ferito a morte da costui. Accorre Averardo con le guardie e Guelfo, preso da terribile furore uccide Ricciarda, quindi immerge il ferro nel proprio petto.

Sávio Bortolini Pimentel

September 25th, 2016

Sávio Bortolini Pimentel, ou simplement Sávio (né le 9 janvier 1974 à Vila Velha

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, Brésil), est un footballeur professionnel franco-brésilien ayant joué pour l’équipe nationale brésilienne. Son poste de prédilection est milieu gauche.

Sávio est formé et révélé à Flamengo où il évolue aux côtés de Romário et Edmundo. En 1998, il part en Europe, au Real Madrid. Malgré quelques blessures, il y gagne des titres continentaux. Mais suite à l’arrivée de Vicente del Bosque, ses titularisations se font plus rares. Ainsi, pour sa dernière saison sous contrat avec le club madrilène, il est prêté aux Girondins de Bordeaux. Malgré une saison excellente, les dirigeants girondins ne lèvent pas l’option d’achat en fin de saison, jugée trop cher (environ 10 millions d’euros). Il repart donc ensuite en Espagne, au Real Saragosse.

En avril 2006, il exprime son désir de revenir jouer au Brésil ; il retourne donc quelques mois à Flamengo, son club formateur. Après un prêt de six mois à la Real Sociedad, il s’engage avec le Levante Unión Deportiva ; malheureusement, suite aux difficultés financières du club espagnol, il est contraint de résilier son contrat en décembre 2007.

Eté 2008, il joue pour l’équipe chypriote de l’Anorthosis Famagouste, équipe avec laquelle il dispute la Ligue des Champions.

En janvier 2010

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, il retourne dans son pays natal au Avaí FC (Florianópolis).

Finalement à l’été 2011, handicapé par une blessure, il décide de mettre un terme à sa carrière.

Franz Karl Ginzkey

September 25th, 2016

Franz Karl Ginzkey (* 8. September 1871 in Pola, Küstenland, Österreich-Ungarn, heute Pula, Kroatien; † 11. April 1963 in Wien) war ein österreicher Dichter und Schriftsteller sowie Offizier der österreichisch-ungarischen Armee. Sein bekanntestes Buch Hatschi Bratschis Luftballon hat Generationen von Kindern in seinen Bann gezogen.

Franz Karl Ginzkey, Sohn eines sudetendeutschen Beamten der österreichischen Kriegsmarine, besuchte die Marine-Realschule in Pola, anschließend die Marine-Akademie in Fiume und, nachdem er wegen mangelnder Subordination von dort abzugehen hatte, die Infanterie-Kadettenschule in Triest, die er mit dem Dienstgrad “Fähnrich” abschloss.

Ginzkey war bis 1897 Infanterieoffizier in der k. u. k. Armee in Triest und Pola sowie zunächst auch provisorischer Kommandant der als Kaserne (Rainer-Infanterieregiment) genutzten Festung Hohensalzburg. Von 1897 bis 1914 arbeitete er mit dem Titel eines technischen Oberrats als Kartograph am Militärgeographischen Institut in Wien, danach als Archivrat im Kriegsarchiv

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. In dieser Zeit war er auch zeitweise als Kriegsberichterstatter an der italienischen Front tätig.

Seit 1920 war er als Heeresangehöriger pensioniert und danach als freier Schriftsteller tätig. Er lebte in Wien und ab 1921 in Salzburg, wo er an der Gründung der Salzburger Festspiele beteiligt war, deren Kuratorium er jahrzehntelang angehörte. Freundschaften verbanden ihn mit Max Mell und Stefan Zweig, aber auch mit Anton Faistauer und Carl Zuckmayer. Er gehörte von 1919 bis 1931 der Freimaurerloge „Zukunft“ an. 1933 verließ Ginzkey den P.E.N.-Club, nachdem dieser sich gegen die Bücherverbrennungen im Deutschen Reich ausgesprochen hatte.

Zur Zeit des Austrofaschismus war er (für die Berufsgruppe der Künstler) von 1934 bis 1938 Mitglied des Staatsrats. 1936 wurde er Mitglied des Bundes deutscher Schriftsteller Österreichs, der für den Anschluss Österreichs an das Deutsche Reich eintrat. Ginzkey verfasste auch einen Beitrag in dessen Bekenntnisbuch österreichischer Schriftsteller nach erfolgtem Anschluss 1938. Die Mitgliedschaft in der NSDAP (Nr. 8.751.771) erfolgte erst 1942 gnadenhalber durch Adolf Hitler, da Ginzkey als ehemaliger Freimaurer auf Misstrauen der Nationalsozialisten stieß. Ginzkey verfasste in dieser Zeit auch Propagandalyrik, so zum Beispiel das 1943 in der Zeitschrift “Oberdonau” erschienene Gedicht “Heimkehr des Panzerschützen”, in dem es heißt: “Treu der Pflicht das Äußerste zu wagen; Hieß er Schweigen seines Herzens Not; Tod zu säen war ihm aufgetragen; und er säte unerbittlich Tod”.

Ab 1944 lebte er in Seewalchen am Attersee und in Wien. Zwar wurde nach Kriegsende Ginzkeys Die Front in Tirol (Fischer, Berlin 1916) in der Sowjetischen Besatzungszone auf die Liste der auszusondernden Literatur gesetzt, und er war auch Autor zahlreicher Beiträge in dem der Neuen Rechten zuzuordnenden Eckartbote. Dennoch wurde der nun schon über Siebzigjährige in der Zweiten Republik wieder verstärkt aufgelegt und als Repräsentant altösterreichischer Dichtung vielfach geehrt. Seit 1956 wohnte Ginzkey in dem nach ihm benannten Ginzkeyhof, einem Gemeindebau der Stadt Wien in der Johannesgasse 9–13.

Ginzkey war seit 1910 mit Stefanie Stoiser verheiratet. Er starb im hohen Alter von 92 Jahren und ruht in einem Ehrengrab auf dem Wiener Zentralfriedhof (Gruppe 32 C, Nummer 25), das 2015 in ein „Historisches Grab auf Friedhofsdauer mit Obhut“ umgewidmet wurde.

Seit 1965 ist sein Lied Oh Heimat, dich zu lieben zu einer Melodie von Ludwig van Beethoven die Niederösterreichische Landeshymne.

Franz Karl Ginzkey war ein prominenter Vertreter der Neuromantik in Österreich, der von zahlreichen Künstlerkollegen geschätzt wurde. Peter Rosegger vermittelte ihn 1906 an den Staackmann Verlag, der den Großteil der Werke Ginzkeys verlegte. Dies bedeutete den literarischen Durchbruch.

Der seinerzeit gern gelesene Autor galt zunächst vor allem als Lyriker. Daneben trat er auch als Erzähler mit Novellen und etlichen Romanen hervor, deren Thema rätselhafte menschliche Verstrickungen sind.

Der Ton von Ginzkeys Werken ist eher leise, die Sprache gefühlvoll und voll leiser Melancholie. Nach dem Krieg galt Ginzkey als Repräsentant einer altösterreichischen Tradition, der in seinen Werken sehr oft heimatliche Orte schilderte. Neben Novellen und Balladen, die Wien zum Schauplatz haben (wie die Ballade „Der liebe Augustin“ oder die Novelle Der Zahnweh-Herrgott), zeigen viele seiner Werke auch große Verbundenheit mit Salzburg. Die Welt der k.u.k. Armee wird ebenfalls öfters thematisiert. Einige Werke aus dem Ersten und Zweiten Weltkrieg zeugen von starkem Patriotismus und Nationalismus („Den Herren Feinden“, „Die Front in Tirol“, „Heimkehr des Panzerschützen“).

Am bekanntesten wurde Ginzkey einer breiten Öffentlichkeit durch seine Kinderbücher, die jedoch rassistische Stereotype aufweisen. Diese Umstände sowie Ginzkeys politischer Opportunismus, der seit den 1980er Jahren zunehmend thematisiert wurde, trugen dazu bei, dass der Schriftsteller heute kaum noch verlegt wird. Eine Ausnahme bildet Ginzkeys bekanntestes Kinderbuch

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, Hatschi Bratschis Luftballon

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; es wurde im Einvernehmen mit den Erben um heute als unpassend erscheinende Ausdrücke vermindert (z. B. Neger) wieder aufgelegt.

1960 stiftete der Schutzverband der österreichischen Schriftsteller den Ginzkey-Ring, mit dem er Verdienste im Sinne Ginzkeys auszeichnet.

1968 wurde ihm zu Ehren im Salzburger Stadtteil Salzburg-Süd (Alpensiedlung) der Platz zwischen Alpenstraße und Adolf-Schemel-Straße in Ginzkeyplatz benannt. Zu seinem 100. Geburtstag 1971 wurde in Seewalchen am Attersee ein Franz-Karl-Ginzkey-Denkmal errichtet.

In Wien erinnert eine Gedenktafel am ehemaligen Militärgeographischen Institut an seine Tätigkeit hier. Die städtische Wohnhausanlage in der Johannesgasse 9–13 wurde nach dem Dichter „Ginzkeyhof“ benannt.

Eine 1988 in Seewalchen geplante Benennung eines Schulzentrums nach Ginzkey scheiterte an dessen politischer Vergangenheit.

Ginzkey wurde 1922 durch ein Porträt von Anton Faistauer und 1959 durch eine Bronzebüste von Gustinus Ambrosi künstlerisch dargestellt.

Francisco Cossi

September 25th, 2016

Francisco Cossi Ochoa (El Puerto de Santa María

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, 24 de agosto de 1898 – probablemente en el verano de 1936) fue un político republicano español, por dos veces alcalde de su localidad natal y Presidente de la Diputación Provincial de Cádiz.

Francisco Cossi era el tercero de cinco hermanos

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. Tras estudiar comercio trabajó en una compañía eléctrica y en una faramacia. Miembro de la Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT) y del Partido Republicano Radical Socialista (PRRS), tras la proclamación de la Segunda República participó en las elecciones locales que tuvieron lugar el 31 de mayo de 1931, al haber sido anuladas las elecciones de abril en su localidad, siendo elegido concejal y después alcalde con el apoyo de 18 de los 24 miembros de la corporación. Dimitió como alcalde en mayo de 1932 por razones personales, pero ocupó la alcaldía de nuevo en junio del año siguiente a petición de la corporación. De su tarea como alcalde destacaron las infraestructuras creadas en educación, alumbrado, saneamiento y edificios públicos, así como el hecho de haber auditado las cuentas públicas antes de abandonar la alcaldía en 1932.

Ya como miembro de Izquierda Republicana, con la victoria del Frente Popular en las elecciones generales de 1936, fue designado presidente de la Comisión Gestora de la Diputación de Cádiz, cargo que ocupaba al producirse el golpe de Estado de julio que dio lugar a la Guerra Civil. En ese momento se encontraba en el edificio que ocupaban la diputación y el gobierno civil, rodeado por tropas sublevadas. Permaneció Francisco Cossi junto al gobernador civil, Mariano Zapico, medio centenar de guardias de asalto al mando del capitán Antonio Yáñez-Barnuevo, y centenares de miembros del Frente Popular, resistiendo las acometidas de los sublevados, hasta que al día siguiente, 19 de julio, tropas de los Regulares procedentes de Ceuta se sumaron a los sublevados, rindiéndose los ocupantes.

Detenido

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, Francisco Cossi siguió un periplo de centros: primero en el castillo de Santa Catalina, después al penal de El Puerto, más tarde en el interior del buque carbonero Miraflores, de donde volvió al penal el 29 de julio. El 22 de julio se le incoó procedimiento para consejo de guerra por rebelión militar en el mismo expediente que al gobernador civil Zapico, el secretario particular de éste, Antonio Macalio, al oficial de telégrafos Luis Parrilla Asensio, al capitán Yáyez-Barnuevo, al teniente coronel de carabineros, Leoncio Jaso y al capitán de fragata Tomás de Azcárate García de Lomas. El 2 de agosto se sentenció a muerte a Zapico, Jaso, Yáñez-Barnuevo y Parrilla, que fueron ejecutados cuatro días después. Sobre Cossi, al igual que Azcárate y Macalio Runner Waist Pack, se ordenó por el tribunal abrir un nuevo procedimiento, pero los dos últimos fueron fusilados el 16 de agosto por orden personal del general Queipo de Llano.

A partir de ese momento se perdió la pista de Francisco Cossi. Fue declarado fallecido en 1941 por resolución del Juzgado de Instrucción de Responsabilidades Políticas de la provincia de Cádiz, fijando como fecha en los primeros días del Movimiento, sin más especificaciones. Su hermano Eduardo también desapareció, fijándose más tarde su muerte el 16 de agosto de 1936, y como causa, el Glorioso Movimiento Nacional.

Blasphemy law in the Republic of Ireland

September 25th, 2016

In the Republic of Ireland, blasphemy is required to be prohibited by Article 40.6.1.i. of the 1937 Constitution. The common law offence of blasphemous libel, applicable only to Christianity and last prosecuted in 1855, was ruled in 1999 to be incompatible with the Constitution’s guarantee of religious equality. The lacuna was filled in 2009 by a new offence of “publication or utterance of blasphemous matter”, against any religion. The continued existence of a blasphemy offence is controversial, with proponents of freedom of speech and freedom of religion arguing it should be removed. The government formed in 2016 has committed to holding a referendum on abolishing the constitutional offence.

The legal system of Ireland grew out of the common law system of English law. The common law offence of blasphemous libel applied only to Christianity. Spoken blasphemy was also an offence. Profanity was generally regarded by legal scholars as synonymous with blasphemy. In 1328, Adam Duff O’Toole was burned alive in Dublin for alleged heresy and blasphemy. Initially tried under canon law, he was handed over to the civil power as a repeat offender. He was a member of the O’Toole family which launched Gaelic raids on the Anglo-Norman Pale, and modern historians regard the charges as politically motivated. In later times, the penalty for a first offence of blasphemous libel was an unlimited fine and imprisonment; for a second offence it was banishment. The Anglican Church of Ireland was the established church from 1536 to 1871. Whether the crime could be committed against a denomination other than the established church was unclear; John Kelly suggested not.

Six bills to suppress “blasphemy and profaneness” were introduced in the Parliament of Ireland between 1697 and 1713, but none was passed into law. There was a prosecution in the Kingdom of Ireland for blasphemous libel in 1703: Thomas Emlyn, a Unitarian minister, was fined £1,000 and imprisoned for one year for denying the Divinity of Christ. He remained in debtor’s prison after his initial sentence until the fine was reduced to £70. Narcissus Marsh, the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Dublin, began a prosecution against a Presbyterian minister in Drogheda, which was dropped by the Dublin Castle administration sympathetic to dissenters. Other incidents that century did not result in prosecutions. In 1713, Peter Browne, bishop of Cork and Ross preached that loyal toasts to “the glorious, pious, and immortal memory” of King William were blasphemous. The same year, a convocation of the Church of Ireland recommended prosecution of Robert Molesworth for “an indictable profanation of the holy scriptures”, after he had quoted Scripture in the course of an insult to their representatives at a viceregal levée. In 1756, Robert Clayton, Bishop of Clogher, questioned the Nicene Creed in a tract on religious tolerance; he was condemned by other bishops, but died before any prosecution for blasphemy was brought.

In 1852, in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, John Syngean Bridgman, a Franciscan friar, was convicted in County Mayo after burning an Authorized King James Bible. He viewed it as a souperist work inferior to the Catholic Douay-Rheims Bible. While the indictment described his actions as “in contempt of the Protestant religion”, Judge Thomas Langlois Lefroy advised the jury “it is not the version of the Scriptures which will warrant the commission of such an offence” but rather “a want of reverence to the Scriptures”. In 1855 at Kingstown, a Protestant Bible was burned on a bonfire of “irreligious” books organised by Vladimir Petcherine, a Redemptorist Catholic priest. He was acquitted of blasphemy after claiming he had not intended to burn any Bibles. The case, described by as David Lawton as banal and petty, was prosecuted by the Attorney-General for Ireland and the Solicitor-General for Ireland after a complaint from Methodist minister Robert Wallace.

Common law precedents persisted after the creation in 1922 of the Irish Free State, provided they were consistent with the 1922 Constitution, and later the current (1937) Constitution. The last British prosecution till 1977 was Bowman v Secular Society Limited in 1917. The Irish Law Reform Commission’s 1991 consultation paper on the crime of libel states, “if a case had arisen between Bowman in 1917 and 1937, it seems likely that an Irish court would have found the views in Bowman persuasive”.

The 1937 Constitution states “The publication or utterance of blasphemous, seditious or indecent matter is an offence which shall be punishable in accordance with law”. and “The State acknowledges that the homage of public worship is due to Almighty God. It shall hold His Name in reverence, and shall respect and honour religion.” The Constitution also guarantees certain rights “subject to public order and morality”, including citizens’ right “to express freely their convictions and opinions” and “[f]reedom of conscience and the free profession and practice of religion”.

In 1957, The Rose Tattoo was produced at the inaugural Dublin Theatre Festival. Alan Simpson, owner of the Pike Theatre Club, was prosecuted for “producing for gain an indecent and profane performance”, with obscenity later added to the charge. The play’s detractors were concerned by its sexual content rather than religion. The Law Reform Commission’s 1991 report comments “the equation of indecency and obscenity with profanity is probably misconceived

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. Although profane matter may sometimes be obscene or indecent, it is not necessarily so.”

Section 13 of the Defamation Act, 1961 prescribed penalties for blasphemous libel, but did not define the offence, which was presumed still to be the common-law offence. The new maximum penalties were seven years’ penal servitude, or two years’ imprisonment and a £500 fine. The only attempted prosecution since 1855 was in 1999, when John Corway brought a private prosecution against Independent Newspapers and Irish Independent editor Aengus Fanning for an editorial cartoon published during the 1995 divorce referendum, which depicted the government parties’ leaders snubbing a Catholic priest who was holding out a Communion wafer. The Supreme Court ruled that the 1937 Constitution had extinguished the common law offence, stating “It is difficult to see how the common law crime of blasphemy, related as it was to an established Church and an established religion could survive in … a Constitution guaranteeing freedom of conscience, and the free profession and practice of religion.” It refused to allow the prosecution, stating “in the absence of any legislative definition of the constitutional offence of blasphemy, it is impossible to say of what the offence of blasphemy consists … In the absence of legislation and in the present uncertain state of the law the Court could not see its way to authorising the institution of a criminal prosecution”.

The Law Reform Commission’s 1991 Report opined that “there is no place for the offence of blasphemous libel in a society which respects freedom of speech.” It said the Prohibition of Incitement to hatred Act 1989 provided an adequate protection for outrage against religious belief. However, since banning blasphemy is mandated by the Constitution, abolishing the offence would require a referendum. A referendum solely for that purpose “would rightly be seen as a time wasting and expensive exercise”. The Commission’s report, therefore, outlined criteria for a statutory definition of blasphemy which could serve until such time as Article 40.6.1.i might be changed as part of a broader Constitutional amendment. The 1996 report of the Oireachtas Constitution Review Group agreed that “The retention of the present constitutional offence of blasphemy is not appropriate.”

The Defamation Act 2009 (introduced as the Defamation Bill 2006) implemented many of the recommendations of the Commission’s 1991 report. Originally, it omitted reference to blasphemy, pending a review by the Oireachtas Joint Committee on the Constitution. In March 2008, Brian Lenihan, then Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform, said:

The Joint Committee on the Constitution’s report on Article 40.6.1.i. was published in July 2008. The Committee had discussed the case of comedian Tommy Tiernan, whose stand-up routine on The Late Late Show parodied the Gospels, offending many viewers. The Bar Council of Ireland made a presentation to the Committee, pointing out that blasphemy and treason were the only crimes specifically mentioned in the Constitution. Neville Cox stated:

The Oireachtas Committee’s report concluded:

On 20 May 2009 at the Bill’s committee stage, section 36, dealing with blasphemy was introduced by Minister for Justice Dermot Ahern as an amendment. Section 36 defines a new indictable offence of “Publication or utterance of blasphemous matter”, which carries a maximum fine of €25,000. The offence consists of uttering material “grossly abusive or insulting in relation to matters held sacred by any religion”, when the intent and result is “outrage among a substantial number of the adherents of that religion”. A defence is permitted for work of “genuine literary, artistic, political, scientific, or academic value”. “Religion” excludes profit-driven organisations or those using “oppressive psychological manipulation”. Upon conviction under section 36, a court warrant can authorise the Garda Síochána (police) to enter premises to search for and seize any copies of the blasphemous material.

Ahern said:

Mary McAleese, the President of Ireland, convened the Council of State to discuss whether the Bill should be referred to the Supreme Court to test its Constitutionality; she decided not to do so. The bill became Law when McAleese signed it on 23 July 2009, and came into force on 1 January 2010.

The advocacy group Atheist Ireland responded to the enactment by announcing the formation of the “Church of Dermotology” (named after Dermot Ahern). On the date on which the law came into effect, it published a series of potentially blasphemous quotations on its website and vowed to challenge any resulting legal action.

After the 2015 Charlie Hebdo shooting, Ali Selim of the Islamic Cultural Centre of Ireland suggested that the blasphemy provision of the Defamation Act 2009 should be applied to any media outlet reproducing cartoons depicting Muhammad as part of the “Je suis Charlie” campaign.

After the 2009 Act, Atheist Ireland said that it would be holding a series of public meetings to launch a campaign for secular constitutional reform. In March 2010, Ahern’s press officer said the minister might ask the cabinet to hold a referendum to remove the reference to blasphemy from the Constitution in autumn 2010, at the same time tentatively planned for a referendum on an amendment relating to children’s rights. Asked about this in the Dáil, Ahern did not offer any commitment, but said:

In the event, no referendums were held before the dissolution of the 30th Dáil in January 2011. Before the ensuing general election, Atheist Ireland asked parties “Do you believe that blasphemy should be a criminal offence?” Fine Gael, Sinn Féin, and the Workers’ Party said no, while Labour and the Green Party supported a referendum to remove the constitutional requirement. After the election, the Fine Gael–Labour coalition’s programme for government promised a Constitutional Convention to discuss potential amendments, including “Removing blasphemy from the Constitution”.

The Convention was established in December 2012, and received submissions on the blasphemy issue from various groups and individuals, mostly in favour of abolition. The Irish Council of Churches, a coalition of the main Christian churches in Ireland, described the provision as “largely obsolete”. The Convention considered the issue at its seventh plenary session on 2–3 November 2013. Several submitters were invited to make presentations at the meeting. There were expert presentations from university academics Neville Cox, Eoin O’Dell, and Maeve Cooke; the Knights of Saint Columbanus, the Islamic Cultural Centre of Ireland, and an NUIG PhD student argued in favour of retention, while Atheist Ireland, the Humanist Association of Ireland, and the Irish Council of Civil Liberties argued for its removal. Convention members voted 61–38 against retaining the existing Constitutional prohibition of blasphemy; 53–38 in favour of replacing it with a prohibition of “incitement to religious hatred”; and 50–49 against having a statutory prohibition of blasphemy. If a statutory prohibition were used, members voted 81–11 in favour of a new provision rather than the 2009 act.

In October 2014, Minister of State Aodhán Ó Ríordáin gave the official government response to the Convention’s report on blasphemy, announcing that it had decided to hold a referendum on the issue. In January 2015, Taoiseach Enda Kenny said there would not be a referendum on the issue before the next general election, due by April 2016. He said that two referendums were already to be held in 2015, on marriage equality and reducing the age of candidacy for the presidency, and any more might distract voters from focusing on the issues.

After the election on 26 February, protracted negotiations led to a Fine Gael–independent government on 7 May with confidence and supply support from Fianna Fáil. The government programme published on 11 May includes a commitment to holding a referendum on blasphemy.

The Censorship of Films Act 1923 mandates the Chief Censor to prohibit a film or scene “unfit for general exhibition in public by reason of its being indecent, obscene or blasphemous”. A 1925 Amendment extended the power to ban advertisements for films. These powers are retained in the most recent legislation of 2008. The Censor (now called the Director of Film Classification) has wide discretion in interpreting the criteria: Monty Python’s Life of Brian was banned by Frank Hall in 1980 for being blasphemous; when resubmitted in 1987 it was passed uncut by his successor Sheamus Smith. These Acts apply only to cinema films; the Video Recordings Act, 1989 does not include blasphemy as grounds for prohibition, but does include ‘incitement of religious hatred’ as grounds for censorship or an outright ban (refusal of certification).

The Censorship of Publications Acts (1929 and 1946) did not include blasphemy among possible grounds for banning, which were indecency, obscenity, promotion of “unnatural” contraception or abortion, and (in the case of periodicals) excessive focus on crime. In the debate on the 1946 Bill, Senator Louis O’Dea suggested adding blasphemy as a criterion

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The Advertising Standards Authority for Ireland’s voluntary code of conduct requires advertising to “avoid causing offence on grounds of … religion” and not to “ridicule or exploit religious beliefs, symbols, rites or practices.” A 2005 Paddy Power poster, parodying Leonardo da Vinci’s The Last Supper with Jesus and the apostles in a casino, was withdrawn for breaching the religion guidelines as well as “taste and decency”.

Seán Cannon

September 25th, 2016

Seán Cannon (Galway, Ierland, 29 november 1940) is een Ierse muzikant. Sinds 1982 is hij lead-zanger en gitarist bij The Dubliners.

Hij reisde op een vroege leeftijd door Europa en wandelde in Engeland, Duitsland, Zwitserland en Spanje. Tijdens deze reizen leerde Cannon meerdere talen te spreken. Hij verhuisde naar Engeland (waar hij nog steeds woont), en werd een bekende solo-artiest en speelde in bijna elke folkclub in Groot-Brittannië (met inbegrip van de Star Club in Digbeth Birmingham).

Cannon trouwde met Pamela Blick en heeft twee zoons: James en Robert Cannon, later kwam het tot een scheiding. Zijn vader, Jim Cannon, werd geboren in Donegal, maar verhuisde naar Galway City en trouwde met Kathleen Byrne, die uit Aughrim, Co Galway kwam.

In 1969 was Cannon toegetreden tot een folkgroep in Engeland genaamd The Gaels. De Gaels bestond uit drie Ieren en een Schot. Ze maakten een album. Hij produceerde ook een aantal solo-albums

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, waarvan er twee werden uitgebracht in de jaren 1970.

Cannon wist van het bestaan van The Dubliners en net als Eamonn Campbell voegde hij zich bij hen op het podium bij tal van gelegenheden

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. Toen Luke Kelly ziek werd, kwam hij bij de groep en werd een fulltime Dubliner in 1982. Cannon doet nog steeds solo-werk tussen de toeren. Hij speelt dan optredens met zijn zoon, James Cannon. Ze noemen zichzelf The Cannons. Seán Cannon woont in Coventry

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, in Engeland.

Seán Cannon is vereeuwigd in het Christy Moore lied Lisdoonvarna. Het couplet Seán Cannon Doing Back Stage Cooking is een directe verwijzing naar de reis van Seán naar alle muziek festivals eind jaren 1970 met een omgebouwde caravan en hij verkocht daar dan curry.

Buiten de Dubliners

Love Moves

September 25th, 2016

Love Moves is the seventh studio album by Kim Wilde, released in May 1990.

The album contained six tracks written by Ricki and Kim Wilde and four tracks written by Kim Wilde and Tony Swain. It was produced by Ricki Wilde.

Promotion began in the spring of 1990 with the release of the single “It’s Here”, a track with Spanish guitars.

The album attempted to capitalize on the success of Close, but although a Top 10 in Scandinavian countries, it failed to sell as strongly as its predecessor.Some critics noted the MOR feel of the album and the use of similar production sounds throughout. It includes guests Jaki Graham, who contributed backing vocals, and Deon Estus, playing bass guitar

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. Wilde herself believed “it was a very strong album, and it was very disappointing that it didn’t do well. But it didn’t really come as too much of a big surprise, because my career before then had always been very up and down. So it wasn’t a complete shock… but it was very disappointing.”

This was the first Wilde project to yield no Top 40 releases in the UK (“Time”, the second release, is the lowest charting single in her discography). Five singles in total were released across Europe, with “It’s Here” becoming a Top 20 hit in Scandinavian countries and “Can’t Get Enough” making a Top 20 entry and long run on the French singles chart.

In Australia, the album peaked at #126 on the ARIA albums chart.

Love Moves received mostly negative reviews from contemporary critics sweater shaver. Colin Irwan of Smash Hits, despite referring to Wilde as “one of pop’s more welcome survivors”, accused the singer of “underselling” herself. Describing “It’s Here” as “characterless” and the album itself as containing “featherweight production and unimaginative material”, some praise was given to “Time” (which was compared to the work of Belinda Carlisle) and “In Hollywood” (featuring a “Madonna-esque sense of drama”). Q described the album as a disappointment, writing of Wilde’s “character-free voice” and the “EEC approved variants of what once might have been considered a lightly soulful persuasion” found on “Time” and “Who’s to Blame”.

All tracks composed by Kim Wilde and Ricky Wilde; except where indicated

Castello di La Follie

September 25th, 2016

[senza fonte]

Coordinate:

Il castello di La Follie (in francese château de La Follie) è un castello della provincia di Hainaut in Belgio, situato nella frazione Écaussinnes-d’Enghien del comune di Écaussinnes, lungo la Sennette. L’edificio è un maniero del XVI secolo edificato sulle fondazioni di un antico castello fortificato del XIV secolo.

Il castello è tutelato dallo Stato belga.

L’edificio attuale non è antecedente al XVI secolo; nel 1928, degli scavi compiuti dal proprietario Pierre de Lichtervelde hanno permesso di scoprire un antico fossato risalente a due secoli prima (XIV secolo)

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. L’antico castello aveva l’aspetto di una fortezza, con quattro torri cilindriche, munite di caditoie, collegate tra di loro con mura di tre metri di spessore, per formare un solido quadrilatero. Il castello, circondato dal fossato, presentava l’ingresso protetto da un ponte levatoio.

Sotto l’attuale castello si trovano immense cantine voltate, dove si possono ancora osservare le fondazioni delle quattro torri angolari oggi scomparse. La presenza di un caminetto fa ritenere che il luogo fosse ancora abitabile nel XIV secolo. Nel XVI secolo, per la costruzione del nuovo castello, il pavimento fu sopraelevato, rendendo questi ambienti totalmente sotterranei

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Ogni anno, nel mese di luglio, presso il castello è organizzato un festival di musica classica di alto livello . Nel mese di agosto, nel parco del castello è invece organizzato il Théâtre royal des Galeries.

La corte interna del castello

La Sennette e il castello

Altri progetti

Mahia Peninsula

September 25th, 2016

The Mahia Peninsula is located on the east coast of New Zealand’s North Island, between the cities of Napier and Gisborne.

The peninsula is 21.7 kilometres (13.5 mi) long and 11.3 km (7 mi) wide. Its highest point is Rahuimokairoa (397&nbsp

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;m (1,302 ft)) above sea level. Mahia was initially an island but over time,a sand bar joined it to the North Island. Whales often strand on the shallow sand build up[citation needed].

Early whalers had a whaling station on the farm “Kini Kini”, sheltered by “Long Point” on the west coast of the peninsula. Portland Island (‘Waikawa’) was named by Kahungunu when he visited there to look for fresh drinking water and only found salt water[citation needed]. Waikawa means “sour water”. Waikawa is a small island off the southern tip of Mahia Peninsula with an unmanned lighthouse. The name Mahia means “indistinct sound”.

The area is a popular seaside resort and contains a holiday park dating back to the 1960s

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. The remaining settlement consists mostly of holiday houses and baches. Sheep and cattle farms are still an important part for the local community, however the most important activity of the area is tourism. Mahia’s population swells greatly during the warmer months and in particular during school holidays. Mahia is famous for its surf, scuba diving, hiking, and fishing. Many tourists stay in Napier, Hastings or Wairoa and travel to Mahia Peninsula for the day[citation needed]. Morere Hot Springs is located at the northern end of Mahia Peninsula.

In Maori legend, Whatonga who came to New Zealand in search of his grandfather Toi, settled at Mahia

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. The community these days is still generally a mix of Maori and European[citation needed]. The local Maori people are known as Ngāti Rongomaiwahine.

More recently Mahia has become famous for the presence of Moko the Dolphin.

The Rocket Lab company started to set up in 2016 a rocket range to launch its ‘Electron’ vehicle under development. Once in regular operations, it is meant to be used as a commercial launcher of a type miniature satellites called CubeSat.

Coordinates:

Almorah (1817)

September 25th, 2016

Almorah was a 416-ton sailing ship built at Selby, England in 1817.

On her first convict voyage, under the command on William McKissock, she transported 180 male convicts from Downs, England to Sydney. She departed The Downs on the 26 April 1817 and arrived in Sydney on the 29 August 1817

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. No convicts died on the voyage. She left Port Jackson on 26 October 1817 bound for Batavia. She departed Waterford, Ireland on her second convict voyage, under the command of Thomas Wilson, on 22 August 1820 with 160 male convicts and arrived in Sydney on the 22 December 1820. One convict died on the voyage. During her third convict voyage, under the command of George Hay she carried 109 female convicts from Cork

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. She departed Cork on the 6 April 1824 and arrived in Sydney on the 20 August 1824 Rose Tennis Bracelet. One convict died during the voyage.

In 1825, the Almorah was seized with her cargo by HMS Tamar at Calcutta.

She foundered in the North Atlantic in 1832.

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