James J. Hill

October 16th, 2017

James Jerome Hill (September 16, 1838 – May 29, 1916), was a Canadian-American railroad executive. He was the chief executive officer of a family of lines headed by the Great Northern Railway, which served a substantial area of the Upper Midwest, the northern Great Plains, and Pacific Northwest. Because of the size of this region and the economic dominance exerted by the Hill lines, Hill became known during his lifetime as “The Empire Builder.”

Hill was born in Eramosa Township, Wellington County, Upper Canada (now Ontario). A childhood accident with a bow and arrow blinded him in the right eye. He had nine years of formal schooling. He attended the Rockwood Academy for a short while, where the head gave him free tuition. He was forced to leave school in 1852 due to the death of his father. By the time he had finished, he was adept at algebra, geometry, land surveying, and English. His particular talents for English and mathematics would be critical later in his life.

After working as a clerk in Kentucky (during which he learned bookkeeping), Hill decided to permanently move to the United States and settled in St. Paul, Minnesota, at the age of 18. His first job in St. Paul was with a steamboat company enzymes in meat tenderizer, where he worked as a bookkeeper. By 1860, he was working for wholesale grocers, for whom he handled freight transfers, especially dealing with railroads and steamboats. Through this work, he learned all aspects of the freight and transportation business. During this period, Hill began to work for himself for the first time. During the winter months when the Mississippi River was frozen and steamboats could not run, Hill started bidding on other contracts and won quite a few.[citation needed]

Because of his previous experiences in shipping and fuel supply, Hill was able to enter both the coal and steamboat businesses. In 1870, he and his partners started the Red River Transportation Company, which offered steam boat transportation between St. Paul and Winnipeg. By 1879 he had a local monopoly by merging (with Norman Kittson). In 1867, Hill entered the coal business, and by 1879 it had expanded five times over, giving Hill a local monopoly in the anthracite coal business. During this same period, Hill also entered into banking and quickly managed to become member of several major banks’ boards of directors. He also bought out bankrupt businesses, built them up again, and then resold them—often gaining a substantial profit. Hill noted that the secret to his success was “work, hard work, intelligent work, and then more work.”

During the Panic of 1873, a number of railroads, including the St. Paul and Pacific Railroad (StP&P), had gone bankrupt. The StP&P in particular was caught in an almost hopeless legal muddle. For James Hill it was a golden opportunity. For three years, Hill researched the StP&P and finally concluded that it would be possible to make a good deal of money off the StP&P, provided that the initial capital could be found. Hill teamed up with Norman Kittson (the man he had merged steamboat businesses with), Donald Smith, George Stephen and John Stewart Kennedy. Together they not only bought the railroad, they also vastly expanded it by bargaining for trackage rights with the Northern Pacific Railway. In May 1879, the St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Manitoba Railway Co. (StPM&M) formed—with James J. Hill as general manager. His first goal was to expand and upgrade even more.

Hill was a hands-on, detail-obsessed manager. A Canadian himself of Scotch-Irish Protestant ancestry, he brought in many men with the same background into high management. He wanted people to settle along his rail lines, so he sold homesteads to immigrants while transporting them to their new homes using his rail lines. When he was looking for the best path for one of his tracks to take, he went on horseback and scouted it personally. Under his management, StPM&M prospered. In 1880, its net worth was $728,000; in 1885 it was $25,000,000.

One of his challenges at this point was the avoidance of federal action against railroads. If the federal government believed that the railroads were making too much profit, they might see this as an opportunity to force lowering of the railway tariff rates. Hill avoided this by investing a large portion of the railroad’s profit back into the railroad itself—and charged those investments to operating expense. It was at this point that Hill went from general manager to the official president of StPM&M, and thereafter decided to expand the rail lines.

Between 1883 and 1889, Hill built his railroads across Minnesota, into Wisconsin, and across North Dakota to Montana.

When there was not enough industry in the areas Hill was building, Hill brought the industry in, often by buying out a company and placing plants along his railroad lines. By 1889, Hill decided that his future lay in expanding into a transcontinental railroad.

“What we want,” Hill is quoted as saying, “is the best possible line, shortest distance, lowest grades, and least curvature we can build. We do not care enough for Rocky Mountains scenery to spend a large sum of money developing it.” Hill got what he wanted, and in January 1893 his Great Northern Railway, running from St. Paul, Minnesota to Seattle, Washington — a distance of more than 1,700 miles (2,700 km) — was completed. The Great Northern was the first transcontinental built without public money and just a few land grants, and was one of the few transcontinental railroads not to go bankrupt.

Hill chose to build his railroad north of the competing Northern Pacific line, which had reached the Pacific Northwest over much more difficult terrain with more bridges, steeper grades, and tunnelling. Hill did much of the route planning himself, travelling over proposed routes on horseback. The key to the Great Northern line was Hill’s use of the previously unmapped Marias Pass. The pass had initially been described by Lewis and Clark in 1805, but no one since had been able to find it so Hill hired Santiago Jameson to search it out. Jameson discovered the pass 1889 and it shortened the Grand Northern’s route by almost one hundred miles. The pass had been discovered by John Frank Stevens, principal engineer of the Great Northern Railway, in December 1889, and offered an easier route across the Rockies than that taken by the Northern Pacific. The Great Northern reached Seattle in 1893.

In 1898 Hill purchased control of large parts of the Mesabi Range iron mining district in Minnesota, along with its rail lines. The Great Northern began large-scale shipment of ore to the steel mills of the Midwest.

The Great Northern energetically promoted settlement along its lines in North Dakota and Montana, especially by German and Scandinavians from Europe. The Great Northern bought its lands from the federal government—it received no land grants—and resold them to farmers at cheap prices. It operated agencies in Germany and Scandinavia that promoted its lands, and brought families over at low cost. Hill also invested in founding schools and churches for these communities and promoted a variety of progressive techniques to ensure they prospered. This “Dakota Boom” peaked in 1882 as 42,000 immigrants, largely from northern Europe, poured into the Red River Valley running through the region. The rapidly increasing settlement in North Dakota’s Red River Valley along the Minnesota border between 1871 and 1890 was a major example of large-scale “bonanza” farming.[8][9][10]

Six months after the railroad reached Seattle came the deep nationwide depression called the Panic of 1893. Hill’s leadership became a case study in the successful management of a capital-intensive business during the economic downturn. In order to ensure that he did not lose his patronage during the crisis, Hill lowered rail tariff shipping rates for farmers and gave credit to many of the businesses he owned so they could continue paying their workers. He also took strong measures to economize—in just one year, Hill cut the railway’s expense of carrying a ton of freight by 13%. Because of these measures, Hill not only stayed in business, but also increased the net worth of his railroad by nearly $10 million. Meanwhile, nearly every other transcontinental railroad went bankrupt. His ability to ride out the depression garnered him fame and admiration. Hill saved money by repeatedly cutting wages, made possible by a time of deflation when prices were falling generally.

In 1893, Hill began the process of looking for a source of labor other than Chinese workers. For a brief period of time, he hired Italian and Greek laborers, but company officials were not satisfied with their performance. Hill sent emissaries to the Pacific who found that Japan had the most potential in the market of “Oriental Trade,” and he decided to capitalize on this opportunity.

In this time he also began to focus his energies on securing trade with Asian countries. He offered Japanese Industrialists Southern cotton and ship it free if they would compare it with the short staple cotton they were using with the promise of a refund if they were dissatisfied, which they were not. With these friendly relations established Hill managed to secure the industrializing Japanese order for 15,000 tons of rails against competition from England and Belgium. From 1886 to 1905 American exports to Japan leapt from $7.7 million a year to $51.7 million.

Leonard says that after 1900 Hill exhibited poor business judgment regarding one Canadian subsidiary, the Vancouver, Westminster and Yukon Railway Company (VW&Y). He ousted its president John Hendry, thereby worsening the problems, prolonging the delays, and adding to the costs of taking over the VW&Y. Hill’s top aides were careless about details, bookkeeping, correspondence, and reports.

With 1901 and the start of the new century, James Hill now had control of both the Great Northern Railway, and the Northern Pacific (which he had obtained with the help of his friend J. P. Morgan, when that railroad went bankrupt in the depression of the mid-1890s). Hill also wanted control of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy railroad because of its Midwestern lines and access to Chicago. The Union Pacific Railroad was the biggest competitor of Great Northern and Northern Pacific Railroads. Although Great Northern and Northern Pacific were backed by J. P. Morgan and James J. Hill, the Union Pacific was backed not only by its president, Edward H. Harriman, but by the extremely powerful William Rockefeller and Jacob Schiff.

Quietly, Harriman began buying stock in Northern Pacific with the intention of gaining control of Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy. He was within 40,000 shares of control when Hill learned of Harriman’s activities and quickly contacted J. P. Morgan, who ordered his men to buy everything they could get their hands on.

The result was chaos on Wall Street. Northern Pacific stock was forced up to $1,000 per share. Many speculators, who had sold Northern Pacific “short” in the anticipation of a drop in the railroad’s price, faced ruin. The threat of a real economic panic loomed. Neither side could win a distinct advantage, and the parties soon realized that a truce would have to be called. The winners of that truce were Hill and Morgan, who immediately formed the Northern Securities Company with the aim of tying together their three major rail lines. As the Hill-Morgan alliance formed the Northern Securities Company, Theodore Roosevelt became president and turned his energies against the great trusts that were monopolizing trade.

Roosevelt sent his Justice Department to sue the Northern Securities Company in 1902. The Supreme Court in 1904 ordered it to be dissolved as a monopoly. (Ironically, the Burlington Route, Northern Pacific, and Great Northern would later merge in 1970 to form the Burlington Northern Railroad.) This unfortunately ended Hill’s ability to maintain competitive rates in Asian countries and in the subsequent two years American trade with Japan and China dropped 40% (or $41 million). Hill moved on without the benefit of a central company, and acquired the Colorado and Southern Railway lines into Texas. He also built the Spokane, Portland and Seattle Railway. By the time of his death in 1916, James J. Hill was worth more than $53 million (almost $2.5 billion). When his estate was divided his widow received over 16 million, and each of his children received almost 4 million; only 1.5 million was paid in income and inheritance taxes.

The Great Northern Railway and the Northern Pacific tried to merge four times, in 1896, 1901, 1927, and 1955. This last attempt lasted from 1955 until final Supreme Court approval and merger in March, 1970, which created the Burlington Northern Railroad. In 1995, Burlington Northern merged with the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway to become the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway.

In 1867, James J. Hill married Mary Theresa Mehegan, born in 1846 in New York City. They had ten children:

By early 1916 Hill began pouring more attention into philanthropy, donating thousands of dollars to various institutions as he privately struggled with a variety of increasingly painful ailments. His condition deteriorated quickly in mid-May, but even with the help of many respected doctors he was beyond saving. After falling into a coma, he died in his home in St. Paul, Minnesota, on May 29, 1916.[14] Mary Hill died in 1922 and was buried next to her husband by the shore of Pleasant Lake on their North Oaks farm. Because of vandals and curious admirers, both graves were later moved to Resurrection Cemetery in St. Paul for safer keeping.

Politically, Hill was a Bourbon Democrat. The Democratic Party’s continued enchantment with the populist William Jennings Bryan led Hill to support Republican presidential candidates William McKinley (1896 and 1900), Theodore Roosevelt (1904), and William Howard Taft (1908 and 1912).

Hill was also a member of the Jekyll Island Club (aka The Millionaires Club) on Jekyll Island, Georgia, along with J. P. Morgan and William Rockefeller.

Hill was a supporter of free trade and was one of the few supporters of free trade with Canada. In St. Paul, the city’s main library building and the adjoining Hill Business Library were funded by him. In addition, he donated to numerous schools, including the Saint Paul Seminary.

In 1891, after three years of building, construction was completed on a new Hill family home on Summit Avenue in St. Paul. Over 400 workers labored on the project

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. Built at a cost of $930,000 and with 36,000 square feet (3,300 m2), the James J. Hill House was among the city’s largest. As with his business dealings, Hill supervised the construction and design himself, hiring and firing several architects in the process. The house has many early electrical and mechanical systems that predate widespread adoption in modern domestic structures. Upon completion of the Summit Avenue residence, Hill had the family’s old house, which he had constructed in 1878, razed. After the death of Hill’s wife in 1921, the house was donated to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis. It was obtained by the Minnesota Historical Society in 1978 and today is operated as a museum and gallery.

Though a Protestant, Hill maintained a strong philanthropic relationship with the Catholic Church in St. Paul and through the northwest. Hill’s historic home is located next to the Cathedral, largely due to the special relationship Hill’s wife, a practicing Catholic, had with the Diocese. The Hills maintained close ties with Archbishop John Ireland and Hill was a major contributor to the Saint Paul Seminary, Macalester College, Hamline University, the University of St. Thomas, Carleton College, and other educational, religious and charitable organizations. He was the first major donor to the Marquette University School of Medicine.

In order to generate business for his railroad, Hill encouraged European immigrants to settle along his line, often paying for Russian and Scandinavian settlers to travel from Europe. To promote settlement and revenue for his rail business, Hill experimented with agriculture and worked to hybridize Russian wheat for Dakota soil and weather conditions. He also ran model experimental farms in Minnesota such as North Oaks to develop superior livestock and crop yields for the settlers locating near his railroads.

An enthusiastic conservationist, Hill was invited by President Theodore Roosevelt to a governor’s conference on conservation of natural resources, and later appointed to a lands commission.

Drawing on his experience in the development of Minnesota’s Iron Range, Hill was, during 1911–1912, in close contact with Gaspard Farrer of Baring Brothers & Company of London regarding the formation of the Brazilian Iron Ore Company to tap that nation’s rich mineral deposits.

Near the end of his life, Hill played what a recent biographer, Albro Martin, called his “last and greatest role.” After the first punishing year of World War I, the Allied Powers desperately needed financial support to continue the war effort. To that end, Hill was a major figure in the effort launched by J.P. Morgan to float the Anglo-French Bond drive of 1915, which allowed the Allies to purchase much-needed foodstuffs and other supplies. In September 1915, the first public loan, the $500,000,000 Anglo-French loan, was floated after negotiations with the Anglo-French Financial Commission. Concomitantly, the resulting trade in munitions with England and France carried the United States from a depression in 1914 to boom years in 1915 and 1916.

Hillsboro, North Dakota; Hill County, Montana; and Hillyard, Washington (now a neighborhood of Spokane) – are named for him. In 1929, the Great Northern Railway named its flagship passenger train the Empire Builder in his honor. The train continues as Amtrak’s daily Empire Builder, which uses former Great Northern tracks west of St. Paul, Minnesota. The James J. Hill House in St. Paul, Minnesota, is a National Historic Landmark.

In 1887, the Great Northern’s first company headquarters building was constructed in St. Paul. It was designed by James Brodie, who also built the Hill’s house on Summit Avenue. The 1887 building was converted between 2000 and 2004 to a 53 unit condo in the Historic Lowertown District of St. Paul. Hill had seen the devastation done downtown by the Great Chicago Fire. As a result best steak tenderizer, one feature Hill integrated into the construction of the 1887 company headquarters (the Great Northern General Office Building) was barrel vaulted ceilings constructed of brick and railroad steel rails that held up a layer of sand several inches deep. The theory was that if a fire broke out and the ceiling caved in, the sand would drop and retard or suppress the fire.

Hill was intimately involved in the planning and construction (1914–1916) of a new company headquarters in St. Paul (to be known as the Great Northern Office Building), which was to house the corporate staffs of the Great Northern, the Northern Pacific and Hill’s banking enterprises. The 14-story building cost $14 million to construct.

Hill’s heirs established the James J. Hill Reference Library in St. Paul, which is considered by the Small Business Administration the premier source for publicly accessible practical business information in the United States, and many SBA programs rely on the Hill Library’s HillSearch service to provide business information resources to small businesses nationwide. The Hill Library has developed numerous online programs and now serves millions of small business owners worldwide waterproof case for 4s.

In The Great Gatsby, Hill is the man whom Gatsby’s father says Gatsby would have equalled if he had lived long enough.

Hill and his railway are mentioned in the Harry McClintock song “Hallelujah, I’m a Bum.”

In 1959, Hill High in St. Paul, Minnesota, was established as a school from the funds set aside from Hill’s wife for education. The school, which was all-male, consolidated in 1971 with the all-female Archbishop Murray School to form Hill-Murray School in Maplewood, Minnesota.

is a venture capital fund established in 2016 “aligned with James J. Hill’s belief in the cooperation of the production, distribution and exchange of wealth as outlined in his writings”. The Hill library owns 75 shares. As of September 2016, the fund is not yet closed.

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources

Sandra K. Ellston

October 16th, 2017

Sandra K. Ellston water carriers for runners, also published under the pen names Sandra K. Fischer and Sandra Mason (née Klein, June 18, 1950, in Salem, Oregon) is an American Shakespearean scholar and professor of English and writing at Eastern Oregon University, where she also served as Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences and where she was recipient of the Woman of Vision and Courage Award.

She received a Ph.D jaccard meat. from the University of Oregon in 1980. After that, she was a professor at the State University of New York at Albany, where she received both the President’s and the Chancellor’s Awards for Excellence in Teaching and was Chair of Undergraduate Studies in English and co-director of the Humanities Center. She has conducted research at the Folger Shakespeare Library and received an American Council of Learned Societies grant to participate in the World Shakespeare Conference in Berlin. She specializes in studies of metaphor, particularly metaphors of value and coinage, and is author of Econolingua (1985). Her articles on Renaissance dramatist Elizabeth Cary and on the character Ophelia in Hamlet are widely reprinted. As a Research Fellow at the Oregon State University Center for the Humanities, she applied metaphors of value and valuation to Shakespeare’s history plays. Her scholarly articles appear in various learned journals.

She has spent the last decade as a creative writer of poetry, fiction, creative non-fiction, and drama. Her works appear in various literary magazines, and she was a recipient of the Oregon Literary Arts fellowship award in drama. She is founder and organizer of the Northwest Poets’ Concord.

As Sandra K. Fischer:

Rónald Gómez

October 16th, 2017

Rónald Gómez Gómez (født 24. januar 1975 i Guanacaste) er en costaricansk fotballspiller som spiller for klubben Santos de Guápiles.

Han har deltatt i to VM-sluttspill for Costa Rica. Under VM 2002 scoret han to mål, blant annet ett mot verdensmestrene Brasil. Under VM i Tyskland fire år senere scoret han et mål i den siste gruppespillkampen mot Polen glass bottles for drinks.

I løpet av karrieren har han spilt for klubber i Guatemala, Spania, Hellas og Kypros.

1 Lonnis · 2 Drummond · 3 Marín · 4 Wright · 5 Martínez · 6 López · 7 Fonseca · 8 Solís · 9 Wanchope · 10 Centeno · 11 Gómez · 12 Parks · 13 Vallejos · 14 Rodríguez · 15 Wallace · 16 Bryce · 17 Medford  · 18 Mesén · 19 Cordero · 20 Sunsing · 21 Chinchilla · 22 Castro · 23&nbsp team football uniforms;Morgan · trener: Guimarães

1 Mesén · 2 Drummond · 3 Marín  · 4 Umaña · 5 Martínez · 6 Fonseca · 7 Bolaños · 8 Solís · 9 Wanchope&nbsp best meat tenderizer tool;· 10 Centeno · 11 Gómez · 12 González · 13 Bernard · 14 Azofeifa · 15 Wallace · 16 Hernández · 17 Badilla · 18 Porras · 19 Saborío · 20 Sequeira · 21 Núñez · 22 Rodríguez · 23 Alfaro · trener: Guimarães

Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine

October 16th, 2017

Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion. When used for growth promoting purposes, antibiotics are given at low concentrations for long periods of time. Low concentration of antibiotics, also referred to as subtherapeutic (STA), are given as feed and water additives which improve daily weight gain and feed efficiency through alterations in digestion and disease suppression. Additionally flask water bottle, the use of STA in swine results in healthier animals and reduces the “microbial load” on meat resulting in an assumed decrease in potential Foodborne illness risk msg meat tenderizer. While the benefits of subtherapeutic antibiotic administration are well-documented, there is much concern and debate regarding the development of bacterial antibiotic resistance associated with their use.

This is a specific case of the more general practice of antibiotic use in livestock.

Currently, there appears to be a lack of reliable data associated with the amount of antibiotics used in livestock production. In 2001, the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) published that 24.6 million pounds of antibiotics are used annually for growth promotant purposes. This, they claimed, represented 70% of the antibiotics produced annually in the United States. However, groups such as the Animal Health Institute have taken issue with this figure, accusing the UCS of using questionable methods and assumptions. Listed in Table 1 are the specific types of antibiotics used in swine disease treatment, prevention and growth promotion and their importance in human medicine.

Table 1- Commonly used antibiotics in swine production and their relative importance in human medicine. With regard to human medicine importance, FDA ranks antibiotics as “critically important” (“critical” in the above table), “highly important” (“high” in the table), or “important.” The ranking is based on five criteria from the most important (it is used in treating pathogens that cause foodborne disease) to the least important (there is difficulty in transmitting resistance across genera and species).

Bacterial antibiotic resistance is a process that can occur when bacteria are exposed to STA administration. When a population of bacteria that resides in a hog are exposed to a particular antibiotic for growth promotant purposes, the bacteria that are susceptible to the drug die while the organisms that are resistant will not be affected and will continue to replicate, resulting in a higher proportion of resistant organisms. It has been shown that resistance to antibiotics develops in animals that are fed subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics for growth promoting purposes. Certain bacteria that have the potential to cause human illness, such as Salmonella, that naturally reside in the swine gastrointestinal tracts are constantly exposed to antibiotics. With time, these bacteria become resistant to that class of antibiotics. There is great concern regarding the probability of subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine causing treatment failures in human medicine.

There is concern that use of antibiotics in swine is leading to an increase in resistant bacteria. The reason for concern is that these resistant bacteria could lead to food-borne illness that is less responsive to treatment how to make meat tenderizer at home. Many proponents of the ban cite the “precautionary principle” of public health, which states if there is evidence of harm, the method in question should be avoided. Risk assessment studies have explored the possibility of harm more objectively through causal pathways and model building. These studies show a very small risk of failure of medical treatment due to resistant bacteria caused by the feeding of STA to livestock. For example, a stochastic risk assessment done in 2008 showed that the risk of consequences from an infection with drug resistant Campylobacteriosis was approximately 1 in 82 million.

The general causal pathway depends on a number of variables and probabilities. First, the animal must be harboring resistant bacteria and the bacteria have a probability that they can survive from the animal to the dinner table at infectious doses. Humans must then be exposed to these resistant bacteria by eating undercooked meat or coming into contact with them in the environment. Resistant bacteria and their genetic material that codes for resistance are not only found in food stainless thermos flask, but also the environment. For example, studies have found that resistant bacteria can leak from hog waste lagoons into ground water, creating an exposure through the public water supply. Upon exposure, an individual must develop illness that is severe enough for them to seek medical attention. Factors such as age and immune system condition may influence disease susceptibility, which could impact the severity of disease. If the individual becomes ill and needs medical attention, a physician may prescribe an antibiotic. This pathway depends on the medical doctor’s ability to identify potential antibiotic resistance before prescribing treatment to a patient affected by food-borne illness. If the bacteria causing the illness is resistant to the drug the physician recommended, then the illness will not be improved by the medication. This could potentially lead to increased morbidity and mortality.

In 1999, the European Union banned the use of subtherapeutic antibiotics in livestock. Data from Europe, particularly from Denmark, shows that the prevalence of bacteria resistant to particular antibiotics has decreased since the ban. Some opponents of the use of subtherapeutic antibiotics in swine cite data and results from Europe to support a ban in the United States. They argue that since the ban in Europe, antibiotics resistance has decreased while the overall health of swine has remained the same.

In 2003, the Food and Drug Administration released Guidance #152, which makes recommendations on how to best develop new animal drugs with regard to the potential impacts on human health. In the summer of 2010, the FDA released Guidance #209, which suggests limited livestock use of antibiotics that are medically important to humans. In 2009, Rep. Louise Slaughter introduced HR 1549, otherwise known as The Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act (PAMTA). Under this bill, medically important antibiotics would be phased out in livestock and other restrictions would be placed on antibiotic use in food-producing animals. Some scientists argue that withdrawing antibiotic use will result in more diseased animals, which can result in an increased bacterial load on meat and an increased risk of food-borne illness. Opponents of such a ban argue that the economic implications would be devastating in terms of higher food prices. One study found that the price of pork would increase five cents a pound.


October 16th, 2017

Arcadium war eine britische Psychedelic-Rock-Band der späten 1960er Jahre rund um den Gitarristen, Songwriter und Frontmann Miguel Sergides. Graham Best spielte Bass, Allan Ellwood Orgel, John Albert Parker Schlagzeug und Robert Ellwood die Leadgitarre. Außer dem Schlagzeuger beteiligten sich alle Bandmitglieder auch gesanglich bpa free glass water bottles. Wie viele Bands spielten sie zunächst in Clubs, bis sie bei dem kleinen Label Middle Earth einen Plattenvertrag erhielten healthy water bottle. 1969 erschien ihr erstes und einziges Album Breathe Awhile auf Vinyl best running bands. Das Album wurde im Laufe der Jahre mehrfach neu veröffentlicht, seit 2010 ist es neu abgemischt und um zwei Titel erweitert auf CD erhältlich best water bottle for toddlers. Die jüngste CD-Veröffentlichung ist 2012 beim Label Smd Reper (zu Sony Music gehörig) erschienen.

Die kathedralenartigen Orgelklänge, die verzerrten Gitarrenklänge und die gequälten Gesänge sind Reminiszenzen an Bands wie The Doors, Iron Butterfly und Vanilla Fudge, ganz im Stil der damaligen Zeit.

Nach der Veröffentlichung ihres einzigen Albums verschwanden die Band und ihre Mitglieder in der Versenkung.


The Three Stooges

October 15th, 2017

The Three Stooges var en amerikansk komikertrio som ble berømt i USA gjennom en mengde kortfilmer. Gruppa var aktiv med litt forskjellige medlemmer fra 1925 til 1970. I perioden fra 1934 til 1946 bestod den av brødrene Moe (1897–1975) og Curly Howard (1903–1952) samt Larry Fine (1902–1975), en besetning som regnes som den mest populære. Enda en viktig stooge ble spilt av Shemp Howard (1895–1955), forgjenger og etterfølger til broren Curly original football uniforms. Komikken til trioen hadde røtter i amerikansk vaudevilletradisjon, var farsepreget og kjennetegnet ved hyppige innslag av ganske brutal slapstick. The Three Stooges ble ofte også markedsført under betegnelser som Moe, Larry, and Curly og Moe, Larry, and Shemp. På tross av ofte dårlige kritikker, har komikergruppa fortsatt en viss posisjon i amerikansk populærkultur og mange TV-publikummeres bevissthet, på samme måte som filmkomikerne Helan og Halvan og Abbott og Costello. I Europa er de mindre kjent.

Den engelske betegnelsen stooge kan på norsk oversettes med «prygelknabe» («hakkekylling») eller «tulling (som blir latterliggjort)».

I 2012 kom filmkomedien The Three Stooges: The Movie med regi og manus av Farrelly-brødrene. Den bygger på de gamle kortfilmene og har Sean Hayes safest reusable water bottle, Chris Diamantopoulos og Will Sasso i rollene som Moe, Larry og Curly.

Yoshimune Tokugawa

October 15th, 2017

Yoshimune Tokugawa (jap. 徳川吉宗 Tokugawa Yoshimune?, ur. 27 listopada 1684, zm. 12 lipca 1751) ósmy siogun z dynastii Tokugawa. Rządził od 1716 do 1745. Był synem Mitsusada Tokugawa – głowy linii rodowej Kii i wnukiem Yorinobu Tokugawa – dziesiątego syna założyciela dynastii siogunów Tokugawa, Ieyasu Tokugawa.

Yoshimune nie był synem żadnego z panujących siogunów. Przeciwnie, był członkiem jednej z młodszych linii bocznych klanu Tokugawa. Założyciel ostatniego w historii siogunatu, Ieyasu Tokugawa, znając historię wygaśnięcia pierwszego rodu siogunów, Minamoto z 1219 roku, martwił się, że jego bezpośredni potomkowie mogą skończyć tak samo, powodując upadek rodu. Aby tego uniknąć, w czasie gdy jego syn Hidetada Tokugawa zaczął sprawować władzę jako drugi siogun, sam ustanowił kolejnych trzech synów na gosanke – głowy trzech kolejnych rodzin, które w wypadku wygaśnięcia linii głównej miały, według starszeństwa, przejmować władzę. Te trzy rodziny nazwano Owari, Kii oraz Mito.

Yoshimune pochodził z drugiej według starszeństwa rodziny Kii, której założycielem był trzeci syn Ieyasu, Yorinobu Tokugawa. Ieyasu przekazał mu w panowanie Księstwo Kii. Następcą po Yorinobu był jego syn Mitsusada Tokugawa, następnie panowało dwóch synów Mitsusady. Po ich śmierci czwarty syn Mitsusady, Yoshimune, został w 1705 panem w Kii. Później wybrano go na sioguna.

Powiązania Yoshimune z siogunami Tokugawa były bardzo ścisłe. Jego dziadek był bratem drugiego sioguna, Hidetada Tokugawa. Ojciec był pierwszym kuzynem trzeciego sioguna Iemitsu Tokugawa. Sam Yoshimune był drugim kuzynem czwartego i piątego sioguna, czyli obu braci Ietsuna i Tsunayoshi Tokugawa, jak także drugim kuzynem Tsunashige Tokugawa, którego syn Ienobu Tokugawa został siogunem.

Yoshimune urodził się w 1684 w bogatym regionie Kii. Nad tym regionem władzę miał jego ojciec, Mitsusada. W dzieciństwie Yoshimune nazywany był imieniem Genroku. W tym czasie jego drugi kuzyn Tsunayoshi Tokugawa rządził w Edo jako siogun top reusable water bottles. Choć ziemie Kii były bogatym regionem wartym na tamte czasy 500,000 koku, to jednak księstwo ciągle pozostawało na debecie. Nawet podczas rządów Mitsusady debet zwiększał się z powodu coraz większych opłat na dwór siogunatu.

W 1697 Genroku przeszedł ceremoniał dojrzałości i przyjął imię Shinnosuke. Osiem lat później, gdy miał 21 lat, jego ojciec i dwóch starszych braci zmarło. W tej sytuacji siogun Ienobu Tokugawa wyznaczył go na nowego pana na ziemiach Kii. Przybrał wtedy nowe imię Yorikata oraz rozpoczął rządy w prowincji. Niemniej jednak wielki dług, który księstwo miało wobec siogunatu od czasów jego ojca, a nawet dziadka, w dalszym ciągu obciążał go finansowo. Co spowodowało, że nie mógł zabezpieczyć się przed groźnymi wydarzeniami, jak tsunami w 1707 roku, które przyniosło wiele zniszczeń i ofiar śmiertelnych na obszarach przybrzeżnych prowincji Kii. Yorikata robił wszystko, aby ustabilizować sytuację w Kii, ale opierał się na rządzie z Edo.

W roku 1712 Siogun Ienobu zmarł, a jego następcą został jego syn, Ietsugu Tokugawa. Wówczas Yorikata postanowił, że nie może opierać się na konserwatywnych ideologiach konfucjanistów takich jak Arai Hakuseki w Edo i musi zrobić wszystko, aby ustabilizować sytuację w Kii. Ale zanim zdążył wdrożyć plan w życie, młodociany siogun Ietsugu zmarł bezpotomnie na początku 1716 roku, mając zaledwie siedem lat. Inne dzieci sioguna Ienobu były zbyt młode, by panować. Dlatego zdecydowano się, aby siogunatem rządził ktoś z jednej z pobocznych linii rodowych.

Yoshimune rozpoczął panowanie jako siogun w pierwszym roku ery Shōtoku (1716). Od tego czasu rządził siogunatem przez 30 lat.

Yoshimune jest uważany przez Timona Screecha za najlepszego z siogunów klanu Tokugawa. Inni, tacy jak George Sansom, uważali że Ieyasu i Hidetada byli najlepszymi dowódcami i administratorami siogunatu.

Yoshimune ustanowił gosankyo, aby powiększyć (tak naprawdę zastąpić) gosanke. Dwaj jego synowie, wraz z drugim synem jego następcy Ieshige, stali się założycielami bocznych linii Tayasu, Hitotsubashi i Shimizu. W przeciwieństwie do gosanke, rody te nie otrzymały we władanie żadnych ziem. Mimo to nadal miały znaczący wpływ na politykę siogunatu, aż do jego upadku, a z niektórych, np. z rodu Hitotsubashi how to use a meat tenderizer mallet, byli wybierani późniejsi siogunowie.

Yoshimune znany jest ze swoich reform finansowych. Odprawił konserwatywnego doradcę Arai Hakuseki i zaczął zmiany znane jako Reformy Kyōhō.

Od 1640 książki zagraniczne były w Japonii zabronione, Yoshimune w 1720 złagodził prawo, po czym zaczął sprowadzać zagraniczne książki i ich przekłady oraz zainicjował rozwój badań nad naukami Zachodu lub rangaku.

W roku 1745 Yoshimune przeszedł w stan spoczynku, obierając tytuł Ōgosho i pozostawiając sprawy państwa w rękach swojego najstarszego syna. Był to ten sam tytuł, który Ieyasu Tokugawa obrał, gdy zrzekł się władzy na rzecz swego syna Hidetada, który uczynił to samo best running fuel belt, kiedy odszedł w stan spoczynku.

Yoshimune zmarł w 20 dnia 5 miesiąca roku Kan’en 4.

Lata rządów siogunów dzielone są na ery zwane nengō.

Tokugawa Yoshimune był centralną postacią w długo trwającym serialu Abarenbo Shogun. Ten jidaigeki przedstawił kilka faktów z kariery Yoshimune, ale fabuła serialu była w dużym stopniu fikcyjna.

W dniu 2 stycznia 2008 r. kanał TV Tokyo wypuścił spektakularny jidaigeki Tokugawa Fūun-Roku, kronikę wydarzeń w życiu Yoshimune.

Yoshimune był także drugorzędną postacią w mandze Red Hot Chili Samurai stworzoną przez Yoshitsugu Katagiri.

Akcja filmu Samurai Rebellion z 1967 roku, rozgrywa się w latach panowania Yoshimune (1727), pozycja sioguna jest wspomniana kilkukrotnie, ale nie bezpośrednio.

Jüdische Küche

October 15th, 2017

Die jüdische Küche ist im Kern geprägt von den jüdischen Speisegesetzen. Darüber hinaus existiert keine einheitliche jüdische Küche, sondern eine Anzahl jüdischer Speisen, die von der Küche der Länder, in denen die Juden lebten und leben, beeinflusst sind.

Generell kann man zwischen einer aschkenasischen und einer sephardisch-orientalischen Küche unterscheiden.

Die jüdischen Speisevorschriften basieren auf der Tora und der jüdischen Glaubenslehre. Zum Beispiel verzehren gläubige Juden keinerlei Milchprodukte gemeinsam mit fleischhaltigen Speisen. Ferner wird Fisch nur mit Milchprodukten oder pflanzlichen Lebensmitteln, aber nicht mit Fleisch kombiniert. Der Genuss zahlreicher Tiere ist verboten, weil sie nicht koscher sind. Um koscher zu sein, müssen Säugetiere ganz gespaltene Hufe haben und Wiederkäuer sein.

Ihren Ursprung hat die jüdische Küche wie die alten Hebräer in Vorderasien. Schon vor Jahrtausenden wurde sie maßgeblich beeinflusst von der Küche des Alten Ägyptens und Byzanz’ waterproof cycling pouch. Die Autorin Salcia Landmann führt beispielsweise den hohen Stellenwert, den Knoblauch („schumim“), Lauch und Zwiebeln in der jüdischen Küche haben, auf diesen ägyptischen und byzantinischen Einfluss zurück.

Wie bei andern orientalischen Völkern war bei den Israeliten pflanzliche Nahrung und vor allem Getreide „dagan“ der Hauptbestandteil der Ernährung. In Syrien ist das heute noch so.


Das wichtigste Getreide war Weizen, der in der Regel zu Mehl ausgemahlen wurde, wobei feines („solet“) und normales Mehl unterschieden wurden. Daraus wurde Brot mit oder ohne Hefe gebacken. Genauso wurde auch Gerste („se’orim“) verwendet (vgl. II Sam. xvii. 28 1 liter glass water bottle; Richter vii. 13; II Könige iv. 42; Ezek. iv filtered glass water bottle. 9, 12).


Linsen („’adaschim“) wurden häufig verwendet, aber auch verschiedene Arten von Bohnen („pol“) waist pack with water bottle, aus denen gelegentlich auch Brot gebacken wurde. Gurken werden auch häufig erwähnt; auch heute noch leben die Armen in Großstädten wie Kairo oder Damaskus hauptsächlich von Brot und Gurken oder Melonen. Gurken werden meist roh als Salat mit Essig gegessen. Numeri. xi. 5 erwähnt Lauch, Zwiebeln und Knoblauch („schumim“), die alle zur selben Pflanzenfamilie gehören. Sie wurden in der Regel roh mit Brot gegessen. Heute werden Zwiebeln in Syrien wie Gürkchen eingelegt und zum Fleisch gereicht.


Es gab frühe Feigen („bikkurah“) und späte Feigen („te’enim“), die späte Sorte wurde getrocknet und zu Kuchen zusammengepresst („debelah“). Trauben wurden frisch oder getrocknet als Rosinen verwendet. Oliven wurden genauso wie heute frisch oder eingelegt genossen. Erwähnt werden auch Granatapfel, die Früchte des Maulbeerbaums, Dattel-Palmen, Pistazien, Mandeln und Walnüsse. Aus Carob wurde mit Wasser ein Getränk zubereitet. Ob Äpfel bekannt waren, ist unklar.


Kreuzkümmel, Minze, Senf, Salz und Knoblauch.

Die aschkenasische Küche ist beeinflusst von der Küche Österreichs und der osteuropäischen Länder, zum Teil auch des Balkans, die sephardisch-orientalische von den Küchen Vorderasiens, besonders der arabischen und türkischen, die auch auf dem Balkan verbreitet ist, sowie der spanischen und portugiesischen.

Salcia Landmann verweist auf die Unterschiede zwischen aschkenasischer und sephardischer Küche darauf, dass sich selbst in Israel viele aschkenasische Juden nicht für die Spezialitäten der sephardischen und orientalischen Juden erwärmen können und umgekehrt.

Als israelisches Nationalgericht gilt Falafel, ein arabisches Gericht, das von den osteuropäischen jüdischen Einwanderern Ende des 19., Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts von der lokalen palästinensisch-arabischen Bevölkerung übernommen wurde.

An Jom Kippur wird 25 Stunden gefastet.

Moldawischer Fußballpokal

October 12th, 2017

Der Moldawische Fußballpokal (rumänisch Cupa Moldovei; russisch Кубок Молдавии) ist der seit 1992 ausgetragene Pokalwettbewerb von Moldawien. Nach der ersten Liga Divizia Națională ist der Pokal der zweithöchste Fußballwettbewerb des Landes. Bis 1991 gehörte Moldawien zur Sowjetunion; nach der Unabhängigkeit führte man den neuen Pokal ein. Verantwortlich für die jährlich Pokalrunde ist der moldawische Fußballverband Federația Moldovenească de Fotbal (FMF). Von 1992 bis 2008 fanden die Endspiele im Nationalstadion Chișinău in der Hauptstadt Chișinău statt. Seit 2009 wurden die Finalspiele im Stadionul Zimbru (10.500 Plätze), ebenfalls in Chișinău, ausgetragen. Das 1952 erbaute Nationalstadion mit ca. 8.000 Plätzen wurde inzwischen abgerissen und soll durch einen Neubau mit 50.000 Plätzen ersetzt werden.

* Gewinner des nationalen Doubles aus Meisterschaft und Pokalsieg.

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Nicht-UEFA Mitglieder: Monaco | Nordzypern | Vatikan

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Trondhjems Plads

October 11th, 2017


Trondhjems Plads er en plass på Østerbro i København, oppkalt etter samme by i Norge hydration for runners. Kvarterets gater er primært navngitt etter norske byer.

Den nesten rektangulære plassen ligger mellom Østbanegade og Trondhjemsgade, ikke langt fra Østerport stasjon. I plassens midtakse ligger mot nord den ene siden av det Det Plessenske Palæ, som har inngang fra Kristianiagde water bottle fanny pack running. Bygningen bærer nå navnet Domus Medica og har siden 1948 tilhørt Den Almindelige Danske Lægeforening. Mot øst på hjørnet av Østbanegade ligger et hus i wienerjugendstil fra 1904; den fredete Glacisgaarden tegnet av arkitekt Aage Langeland-Mathiesen. I Trondhjem Plads nummer 4, lå tidligere Norges ambassade i København. Nå ligger her Hovedstadens Ordblindeskole

Trondhjem Plads prydes av et inngjerdet grøntanlegg med trær og en skulpturgruppe i bronse forestillende jaktgudinnen Diana. Den ble utført av billedhugger Carl Bonnesen og sto ferdig i 1908. Giveren var

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