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2K22 Tunguska

January 9th, 2018

2 × 30 mm 2А38M (ru)

The 2K22 Tunguska (Russian: 2К22 “Тунгуска”; English: Tunguska) is a Russian tracked self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon armed with a surface-to-air gun and missile system. It is designed to provide day and night protection for infantry and tank regiments against low-flying aircraft, helicopters, and cruise missiles in all weather conditions. Its NATO reporting name is SA-19 “Grison”.

Development of the 2K22 anti-aircraft system began on 8 June 1970. At the request of the Soviet Ministry of Defence, the KBP Instrument Design Bureau in Tula, under the guidance of the appointed Chief Designer A. G. Shipunov, started work on a 30mm anti-aircraft system as a replacement for the 23mm ZSU-23-4.

The project, code-named “Tunguska”, was undertaken to improve on the observed shortcomings of the ZSU-23-4 (short range and no early warning) and a counter to new ground attack aircraft in development, such as the A-10 Thunderbolt II, which was designed to be highly resistant to 23 mm cannons. Studies were conducted and demonstrated that a 30 mm cannon would require from a third to a half of the number of shells that the 23 mm cannon of the ZSU-23-4 would need to destroy a given target, and that firing at a MiG-17 (or similarly at, in case of war, NATO’s Hawker Hunter or Fiat G.91) flying at 300 m/s, with an identical mass of 30 mm projectiles would result in a kill probability 1.5 times greater than with 23 mm projectiles. An increase in the maximum engagement altitude from 2,000 to 4,000 m and increased effectiveness when engaging lightly armoured ground targets were also cited.

The initial requirements set for the system were to achieve twice the performance in terms of range, altitude and combat effectiveness of the ZSU-23-4, additionally the system should have a reaction time no greater than 10 seconds. Due to the similarities in the fire control of artillery and missiles, it was decided that the Tunguska would be a combined gun and missile system. A combined system is more effective than the ZSU-23-4, engaging targets at long-range with missiles, and shorter range targets with guns.

In addition to KBP as the primary contractor, other members of the Soviet military-industrial complex were involved in the project; the chassis was developed at the Minsk tractor factory, the radio equipment at the Ulyanovsk Mechanical Factory, central computer at NIEMI (“Antey”), guidance and navigational systems by VNII “Signal”, and optics were developed by the Leningrad Optical Mechanical Association (LOMO).

However, development was slowed between 1975 and 1977 after the introduction of the 9K33 Osa missile system, which seemed to fill the same requirement but with greater missile performance. After some considerable debate, it was felt that a purely missile-based system would not be as effective at dealing with very low flying attack helicopters attacking at short range with no warning as had been proven so successful in the 1973 Arab-Israeli War. Since the reaction time of a gun system is around 8–10 seconds, compared to approximately 30 seconds for a missile-based system, development was restarted.

The initial designs were completed in 1973, with pilot production completed in 1976 at the Ulyanovsk Mechanical Factory. System testing and trials were conducted between September 1980 and December 1981 on the Donguzskiy range. It was officially accepted into service on 8 September 1982 and the initial version, which was designated 2K22/2S6, had four missiles in the ready to fire position (two on each side). The Tunguska entered into limited service from 1984, when the first batteries were delivered to the army.

After a limited production run of the original 2K22, an improved version designated 2K22M/2S6M entered service in 1990. The 2K22M featured several improvements with eight ready-to-fire missiles (four on each side) as well as modifications to the fire control programs, missiles and the general reliability of the system.

Tunguska underwent further improvement when, in 2003, the Russian armed forces accepted the Tunguska-M1 or 2K22M1 into service. The M1 introduced the new 9M311-M1 missile

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, which made a number of changes allowing the 2K22M1 to engage small targets like cruise missiles by replacing the eight-beam laser proximity fuze with a radio fuse. An additional modification afforded greater resistance to infrared countermeasures by replacing the missile tracking flare with a pulsed IR beacon. Other improvements included an increased missile range from 8 to 10 km, improved optical tracking and accuracy, improved fire control co-ordination between components of a battery and the command post. Overall, the Tunguska-M1 has a combat efficiency 1.3–1.5 times greater than the Tunguska-M.

The Tunguska family was until recently a unique and highly competitive weapons system, though in 2007 the Pantsir gun and missile system entered production at KBP—a descendant of the Tunguska, the Pantsir system offers even greater performance than its predecessor.

The GRAU index lists the “Tunguska” system as 2K22, although the army designation 9K22 is also a valid reference. A complete system or battery consists of six 2S6 combat vehicles armed with the 9M311 “Treugol’nik” (triangle) surface-to-air missile and two 2A38 30 mm cannons. These are accompanied by up to three 2F77 transloader trucks. The 2K22 is also associated with a variety of support facilities including the 2F55, 1R10 and 2V110 repair and maintenance vehicles, the MTO-AGZ workshop and the 9V921 test vehicle and others. These facilities provide maintenance for the 2K22 battery in the field as well as scheduled overhauls. Each system can attack six targets simultaneously (1 for each machine 2S6) limited in height of 3.5 km and a height of from −9 (gun)/−10(rocket) to +87 degrees. Minimum height of defeat 0 meters for guns and rockets to 15 meters (original 2K22).

The 2S6 combat vehicle uses the GM-352 and later GM-352M chassis developed and produced by the Minsk Tractor Plant (MTZ) which has six road wheels with hydropneumatic suspension on each side, a drive sprocket at the rear and three return rollers. An NBC system is also integrated into the chassis, which is protected -as the entire vehicle- from small arms fire (7,62) and shell splinters by the armor, as well as an automatic fire suppression system, an automatic gear change and diagnostic capability are available with latest Tunguska-M1 which uses the new GM-5975 chassis developed and produced by MMZ. GM-5975.25 has a cruising range of 500 km and a maximum speed of 65 km per hour. It can function at a relative humidity of 98 per cent at 35 degrees C, in ambient temperatures of −50 degrees C to 50 degrees C and up to an altitude of 3,000 m. It has an ability of climb up to 35 degrees, can cross slopes of 25 degrees, 2 m width ditch, 1 m depth ford. Overall, the layout is similar to the previous ZSU-23-4 with a large central 360-degree rotating turret (designated the 2A40) containing the armament, sensors and three of the crew: the commander, gunner and radar operator. The driver sits in the front left of the hull, with a gas turbine APU to his right and the multi-fuel diesel engine in the rear of the hull.

An electromechanically scanned parabolic E-band (10 kW power) target acquisition radar is mounted on the rear top of the turret that when combined with the turret front mounted J-band (150 kW power) monopulse tracking radar forms the 1RL144 (NATO:Hot Shot) pulse-Doppler 3D radar system, which can detect and track targets flying high as 3,500 m. Alongside the 1A26 digital computer and the 1G30 angle measurement system form the 1A27 radar complex. Tunguska-M has the 1RL144M radar with detection range 18 km and tracking range 16 km-near of the original system’s. The mechanically scanned target acquisition radar for the Tunguska-M1 offers a 360-degree field of view, a detection range of around 18 km and can detect targets flying as low as 15 m, the target acquisition radar can be stowed when in transit. Its tracking radar has a range of 16 km. A C/D-band IFF system is also fitted and designated 1RL138. The radar system is highly protected against various types of interference, and can work if there are mountains on the horizon, regardless of the background. The system is able to fire on the move using 30 mm cannons, although it must be stationary to fire missiles. The maximum target speed can be up to 500 m/s; reaction time 6–8 seconds. Each 2S6 has all facilities for independent warfare.

Standard equipment of the 2S6 and 2S6M includes a computerized fire control system, heating, ventilation, NBC system, an automatic fire detection and suppression system, navigational equipment, night vision aids, 1V116 intercom, external communications system with an R-173 receiver -modernized in the 2S6M for better communication with the command post- and monitoring equipment. The vehicle also has protection against the effects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.

Can work in passive mode (day + night+all weather). The biggest maneuver of possible with an overload 35g. This allows confidently hit strongly maneuvering target.

A battery of six Tunguska can automatically receive fire control information via an encrypted radio link, this allows targets to be distributed between individual units from a Ranzhir or PPRU battery command post, which can receive target information from either AWACS or early warning radar or in the case of the PPRU its own radar equipment.

Original system, with 9M311, 9M311K (3M87) or 9M311-1 missiles with a range of 8 km. Some of these early versions of the “Tunguska” system were known as “Treugol’nik” (Russian Треугольник—triangle) best workout bottle. This system is mounted on the 2S6 integrated air defence vehicle.

Main production system, with 9M311M (3M88) missiles. This integrated air defence vehicle 2S6M is based on the GM-352M chassis. 2F77M transporter-loader. 2F55-1, 1R10-1 and 2V110-1 repair and maintenance vehicles.

Improved version with the 2S6M1 combat vehicle on a GM-5975 chassis, using the 9M311-M1 missile (range: 10 km) and with an improved fire control system. Passed state trials and entered service with the Russian armed forces on 31 July 2003.

Complete upgrade of system with new 57E6[citation needed] missile and new radar system, with detection range of 38 km and a tracking range of 30 km. Missile range is increased to 18 km.

The dual 2 2А38 (ru) 30 mm cannons (as well as the later 2A38M) were designed by the KBP Instrument Design Bureau and manufactured by the Tulamashzavod Joint Stock Company. The cannons are fired alternatively with a combined rate of fire of between 3 lint brush,900 and 5,000 rounds per minute (1,950 to 2,500 rpm for each gun), and have a muzzle velocity of 960 m/s. Bursts of between 83 and 250 rounds are fired as determined by the target type, with an engagement range between 0.2 and 4.0 km and to an altitude of about 3 km. HE-T and HE-I shells are used and fitted with a A-670 time and impact fuze which includes an arming delay and self destruct mechanism. Sources vary on elevation capabilities (one estimate gives +85 to −9 degrees, while another +87 to −10 degrees[citation needed]), though this range allows the system to engage ground as well as aerial targets. The 2K22 can fire its cannons in two primary modes of operation, radar and optical. In radar mode, the target tracking is fully automatic, with the guns aimed using data from the radar. In optical mode, the gunner tracks the target through the 1A29 stabilized sight, with the radar providing range data. The 2K22 is reported to have a kill probability of 0.8 with cannon. The height of defeat for guns is 0–2000 meters—for missiles 10–3500 meters.

The system is able to fire on the move using 30 mm cannons, although it must be stationary to fire missiles, the maximum target speed can be up to 500 m/s, reaction time 6–8 seconds. Each 2S6 has all facilities for independent warfare.

The system uses the same 9M311 (NATO: SA-19/SA-N-11) missile family as the naval CIWS Kashtan which can engage targets at a range of 1.5–8 km and to an altitude of 5 m to 3.5 km, the Tunguska-M1 uses the improved 9M311-M1 missile with an increased range of 2.5–10 km and an altitude of 15 m – 3.5 km. The missile has two stages, a large booster stage with four folding fins, which boosts the missile to a velocity of 900 m/s, before falling away. The second stage has four fixed fins, and four steerable control surfaces. The complete missile is around 2.56 meters long with a weight of 57 kg.

Guidance is performed by the target tracking radar, it constantly relays target range, elevation and bearing to the fire-control computer, and on the basis of this data the computer generates the laying commands for the guns or the trajectory corrections for the missiles. A back-up tracking method can be used by the gunner, who uses the 8× magnification (8 degree field of view) 1A29 stabilized sight of the Tunguska to track the target in elevation and azimuth, the altitude or range of the target being set manually. The gunner is initially cued towards the target by the system’s search radar. Once the missile is steered to within 5 m of the target, an active laser or radio fuse (9M311-M1) is triggered. A contact fuse is also fitted. The warhead weighs about 9 kg, and is a continuous-rod system, consisting of 600 mm long, 6 to 9 mm diameter rods with a flower-like cross section. The cross section ensures the rods break into fragments weighing 2–3 grams. The rods form a complete ring about 5 m from the missile. Outside the rods is a fragmentation layer of steel cubes weighing 2–3 grams. The 9K22 is reported to have a kill probability of 0.6 with missiles (9M311).

Variants of the 2K22 system have continued to serve in the Soviet and later Russian armed forces since their initial introduction in 1984. The 2K22 has also been inducted into the armed forces of a number of foreign states, most notably India. The 2K22 has been used in the 2008 South Ossetia war by Russian armed forces.

Столкновение над Внуковом (1948)

December 18th, 2016

23 декабря 1948 года


Столкновение в воздухе

у деревни Валуево, Ленинский район Московской области (РСФСР, СССР)

12 (4+8)


Аэрофлот (Узбекское ТУ ГВФ, 5 тао)

Центральный аэродром имени М. В. Фрунзе, Москва, РСФСР

Люберцы, Московская область, РСФСР

Южный, Ташкент, УзССР


20 декабря 1948 года


4 (все)

С-47 (прототип ТС-62)


Аэрофлот (МУТА ГВФ, 27 ато)

Внуково, Москва, РСФСР

Быково, Москва, РСФСР


1 февраля 1944 года



8 (все)

В четверг 23 декабря 1948 года в небе в районе аэропорта Внуково столкнулись Ил-12 и ТС-62, в результате чего погибли 12 человек.

Ил-12 с бортовым номером СССР-Л1731 (заводской — 83012908) был выпущен заводом ММЗ «Знамя Труда» 20 декабря, а через три дня его передали Аэрофлоту. Изначально самолёт хотели передать в Грузинское управление ГВФ, однако в назначенный срок экипаж из Грузинского управления не прибыл на Центральный аэродром имени М. В. Фрунзе. Тогда было решено передать его Узбекскому управлению, чей экипаж (командир Иван Лихогодин, второй пилот Владимир Мильчаков, бортрадист Михаил Ушаков и бортмеханик Михаил Бобков) уже находился на аэродроме в ожидании нового самолёта.

Изначально, в случае передачи Ил-12 грузинскому экипажу, планировалось что новый самолёт совершит сперва перелёт во Внуково. Однако узбекский экипаж принял решение продлить его ещё дальше — до Люберец, после чего уже оттуда отправиться в Ташкент. Аэродром имени М. В. Фрунзе относился к Министерству авиационной промышленности, поэтому его руководство не стало предупреждать об изменении плана полёта руководство аэропорта Внуково lint brush, который относился к Главному управлению гражданского воздушного флота. Сам узбекский экипаж не получил ни задания на полет, ни предполетной подготовки, ни метеообеспечения и даже не брал запрос в аэропорту Люберцы согласия на приём. В 15:01 Ил-12 пилотируемый узбекским экипажем взлетел с аэродрома.

Небо над Москвой в это время было затянуто сплошной облачностью с нижней границей 160—350 метров и шёл снег. В 15:14 из подмосковного аэропорта Внуково вылетел ТС-62 Московского управления транспортной авиации, бортовой номер СССР-Л861 (заводской — 42-92583). Пилотировал его экипаж из 4 человек: На его борту находились в общей сложности 8 членов экипажа: командир Виктор Левченко, заместитель командира 27-го ато по летной службе А. А. Лобко, вторые пилоты Сергей Виряскин Сергей Степанович и Ю. И. Ларин, бортмеханики А. А. Маркаров и Фёдор Рунцов, начальник связи 27 ато К.&nbsp takeya classic glass water bottle;Г. Токарев и бортрадист Ф. Г. Томах. Стоит отметить, что из этих 8 человек, лишь 4 составляли лётный экипаж самолёта, тогда как остальные 4 возвращались с авиаремонтной базы № 400. Сам же рейс был перегоночный в аэропорт Быково. После вылета из Внуково ТС-62 занял высоту 300 метров и следовал в Быково курсом 85—90° по ПВП.

В 15:25 ТС-62 находился в 5,8 километрах юго-юго-восточней Внуково (азимут 101°), когда из находящихся рядом облаков вдруг вылетел следовавший по курсу 180° Ил-12 и врезался в него. У ТС-62 от удара отрубило хвост, после чего он сразу перешёл в пике и рухнул в лесу. Его разлетевшийся на части хвост упал на близлежащее поле. Ил-12 же при столкновении потерял оба двигателя, свалился в плоский штопор, после чего упал на лесную опушку примерно в 500—700 метрах от профилактория ГВФ «Валуево», в 220 метрах от ТС-62. Двигатели Ил-12 пролетели почти на полторы сотни метров дальше. При столкновении с землёй оба самолёта взорвались и все 12 человек в них (4 в Ил-12 и 8 в ТС-62) погибли.

Midlothian South, Tweeddale and Lauderdale (Scottish Parliament constituency)

December 15th, 2016

Midlothian South lint brush, Tweeddale and Lauderdale is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament (Holyrood). It will elect one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the plurality (first past the post) method of election. Also, however, it is one of nine constituencies in the South Scotland electoral region, which elects seven additional members, in addition to nine constituency MSPs, to produce a form of proportional representation for the region as a whole.

For the 2011 Scottish Parliament election ladies socks wholesale, Midlothian was abolished small sports bottle, with the creation of two new constituencies called Midlothian North and Musselburgh and Midlothian South, Tweeddale and Lauderdale.

The other eight constituencies of the South Scotland region are Ayr, Carrick, Cumnock and Doon Valley, Clydesdale, Dumfriesshire, East Lothian, Ettrick, Roxburgh and Berwickshire, Galloway and West Dumfries and Kilmarnock and Irvine Valley.

The region covers the Dumfries and Galloway council area, part of the East Ayrshire council area, part of the East Lothian council area, part of the Midlothian council area, the Scottish Borders council area, the South Ayrshire council area and part of the South Lanarkshire council area.

Midlothian is represented by two constituencies in the Scottish Parliament, these are Midlothian North and Musselburgh and Midlothian South, Tweeddale and Lauderdale; Midlothian North and Musselburgh is part of the Lothian region.

Since the 2011 Scottish Parliament election, the constituency of Midlothian South, Tweeddale and Lauderdale has been formed from the following electoral wards:

As Tweeddale safe water bottles, Ettrick and Lauderdale

As Midlothian South, Tweeddale and Lauderdale

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