Archive for October, 2017

Josep Costa Sobrepera

October 29th, 2017

Josep Costa Sobrepera (Palafrugell, 30 June 1937) is a painter of figurative art in Palafrugell (Catalonia, Spain), which highlights his watercolors and oil paintings of seascapes.

Born in a family professionally related with the cork sector, his teachers realized of his ability to realize paintings. Costa Sobrepera received night classes at the Local School of Arts and, at 16, got his first job in the workshop of blacksmith master artisan Joan Gich. The first public exhibit of his work was in 1955 at the Library of Palafrugell, driven by his teacher Lluís Medir Jofra.

Continued exhibiting his works in the library and other centers of the town until 1958, when he began to participate in national and international events, winning some prices. In the decade from 1960 was employed by several companies as a technical engineer for five years and taught evening classes at the School of Arts and Crafts Palafrugell, substituting for his teacher. In 1966 he enrolled at the School of Industrial Engineers of Barcelona. This meant that Costa Sobrepera had little time for painting.

Until 1971 he lived in Barcelona, where it housed the first studio and enrolled as a listener in anatomy classes at the School of Fine Arts go glass bottle, where he met artists like Martinez Lozano. He returned to Palafrugell in 1972 to devote himself entirely to painting in his studio, where he also taught drawing and painting. During the following years he exhibited his work in several galleries throughout Catalonia and Spain, including Barcelona’s Sala Rovira

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, and was awarded in various competitions, both national and international. The 1975 is considered an “important year” for him both personally (married) as an artistic level (exhibited at many venues and art galleries).

The end of the decade of 1970 and during 1980 was the era of artistic production and Costa Sobrepera breakthrough in the dissemination of his work with the participation of many international competitions and a significant presence throughout Catalonia opening in Spain.

In 1996 it is considered that started a new creative stage that led him to travel to Scandinavia and elsewhere in Western Europe. Within this new stage he momentarily left the oil painting to devote himself to watercolor and other colors such as gray and green took center stage. Costa Sobrepera continued getting awards, especially in France.

His works are found in museums in Catalonia:

Szkoła Zen Kwan Um w Polsce

October 28th, 2017

Szkoła Zen Kwan Um w Polsce – związek wyznaniowy reprezentujący tradycję koreańskiego buddyzmu sŏn (jap. zen) where to buy water glass. Założycielem i duchowym patronem szkoły jest Dae Soen Sa Nim Seung Sahn (1927–2004), 78 camera dry bag waterproof. patriarcha koreańskiej tradycji chogye. Działalność związku datuje się od pierwszej wizyty Seung Sahna DSSN w Polsce w 1978 roku, natomiast formalna rejestracja nastąpiła w 1982 roku (pod nazwą Stowarzyszenie Buddyjskie Zen „Chogie” w Polsce, która następnie została zamieniona na Szkoła Zen Kwan Um) best running hydration pack.

Związek jest częścią ogólnoświatowej Szkoły Zen Kwan Um, zrzeszającej obecnie około 70 ośrodków medytacyjnych w 17 krajach świata. W Polsce Szkoła Zen Kwan Um prowadzi pięć ośrodków i siedem grup medytacyjnych. Nauczycielem prowadzącym Świątyni Głównej Wubongsa jest mistrz zen Jyong Hae (Andrzej Piotrowski). Szkoła jest członkiem Polskiej Unii Buddyjskiej pod patronatem J. Ś. Dalajlamy. Wśród proponowanych przez nią aktywności i form praktyki znajdują się: codzienne poranne i wieczorne sesje medytacji oraz śpiewów cheap football tops online, praktyka konganów, intensywne odosobnienia od 3 dni do 3 miesięcy, trening rezydencki, odosobnienia solo oraz pobyt gościnny Templestay.

Réseau de bus Valouette

October 28th, 2017

Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?) selon les recommandations des projets correspondants.

Le réseau de bus Valouette est issu d’un partenariat entre la Communauté d’agglomération du Val de Bièvre (remplacée depuis le par l’Établissement public territorial T12) et la Régie autonome des transports parisiens (RATP). Il est composé de sept lignes dont une ligne-centre spécialement créée pour aller du nord au sud du territoire. Il permet

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, depuis le , aux habitants de parcourir gratuitement l’ensemble du Val de Bièvre composé de sept communes : Arcueil, Cachan, Fresnes, Gentilly, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, L’Haÿ-les-Roses et Villejuif.

Avant la création du réseau Valouette le , certaines lignes existaient déjà mais sous d’autres noms&nbsp watertight bags;:

Le , la ligne v2 est prolongée jusqu’à la station Domaine Chérioux afin d’offrir une correspondance avec la ligne 7 du tramway d’Île-de-France.

Les dates d’ouverture des lignes, le matériel roulant et le centre-bus sont issus du . La durée du parcours et le nombre d’arrêts sont calculés à partir des fiches horaires Valouette, de même que les jours de fonctionnement, les moments de la journée (journée, nuit, fêtes) et les particularités. Enfin, l’accessibilité des lignes et des arrêts desservis est issue des plans de ligne Valouette.

Le nombre d’arrêts est, dans les tableaux, la somme des points d’arrêts ayant des dénominations différentes, qu’ils soient desservis dans un ou les deux sens de circulation.

Les amplitudes horaires sont données selon le principe suivant : lorsque la fiche horaire affiche les horaires de passage aux arrêts importants, elle va de l’heure de départ du premier bus de la ligne la plus précoce furniture shaver, tous arrêts de départ confondus, à l’heure d’arrivée du dernier bus au terminus la plus tardive, tous terminus confondus. Lorsque la fiche horaire n’affiche que les premiers et derniers départs ainsi que les fréquences, elle va de l’heure de départ du premier bus la plus précoce, tous arrêts de départ confondus, à l’heure de départ du dernier bus la plus tardive, tous arrêts de départs confondus. Les horaires communiqués sont arrondis à 5 minutes près antique meat tenderizer tool. Les amplitudes horaires sont basées sur les horaires d’hiver sauf mention contraire.

Gunung Sijeruk

October 27th, 2017

Gunung Sijeruk är ett berg i Indonesien. Det ligger i provinsen Jawa Tengah, i den västra delen av landet, 270 km öster om huvudstaden Jakarta. Toppen på Gunung Sijeruk är 1 002 meter över havet.

Terrängen runt Gunung Sijeruk är huvudsakligen kuperad, men åt sydost är den bergig. Terrängen runt Gunung Sijeruk sluttar brant västerut. Den högsta punkten i närheten är 1 457 meter över havet, 2 bag cover waterproof,1 km öster om Gunung Sijeruk. Runt Gunung Sijeruk är det tätbefolkat, med 411 invånare per kvadratkilometer. Närmaste större samhälle är Baturaden, 16,3 km öster om Gunung Sijeruk. I omgivningarna runt Gunung Sijeruk växer i huvudsak städsegrön lövskog.

Tropiskt regnskogsklimat råder i trakten. Årsmedeltemperaturen i trakten är 21 °C. Den varmaste månaden är mars, då medeltemperaturen är 22 °C, och den kallaste är juni, med 20 °C. Genomsnittlig årsnederbörd är 4 094 millimeter. Den regnigaste månaden är januari, med i genomsnitt 620 mm nederbörd, och den torraste är september

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, med 28 mm nederbörd.

Natalie (Iwan Bunin)

October 27th, 2017

Natalie (russisch Натали) ist eine Erzählung des russischen Nobelpreisträgers für Literatur Iwan Bunin, die am 4.&nbsp

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;April 1941 vollendet wurde und im Februarheft 1942 der New Yorker Ausgabe der russischen Zeitschrift Nowy schurnal erschien.

Auf der Suche nach dem amourösen Abenteuer verbringt Witali Petrowitsch Mestscherski aus dem Gouvernement Tula die Sommerferien nach dem ersten Studienjahr auf dem Gut seines Onkels Tscherkassow, eines Ulanen im Ruhestand. Tscherkassows einzige Tochter swiss water bottle, Witalis 20-jährige Cousine Sonja, findet, Witali habe sich seit dem letzten Besuch ganz schön gemausert. Sonja geht auf Witalis Wunsch nach einer Liebesbeziehung bereitswillig-direkt ein – „wenn da nicht Natalie wäre“. Natalie mit den schwarzen Augen ist Natascha Stankewitsch aus Woronesch, Sonjas spröde Freundin vom Gymnasium. Die gut gewachsene, verschlossene Natalie kommt aus verarmten Hause. Die Stankewitschs beabsichtigen eine Geldheirat; wollen Natalie mit einem Nachbarn verkuppeln. Der Glückliche ist Witalis Cousin Alexej Nikolajitsch Mestscherski, wohlhabender Gutsbesitzer auf Blagodatnoje. Gegen Sonjas frauliche Figur wirkt Natalie beinahe jugendlich-halbwüchsig. Witali genießt die „strapaziös-leidenschaftlichen Stelldicheins“ mit Sonja. Letztere belauert bei jeder Gelegenheit Witali und Natalie. Witali weiß nicht recht, ob er Gott, der ihm auf einen Schlag gleich zwei Lieben geschenkt hat, danken soll. Sonja faucht eifersüchtig, sobald sich Witali „der bezaubernden Natalie“ auch nur nähert; verfolgt mit Argusaugen, wenn er den Blick nicht von der Schönen Brustspitzen, die sich unter deren dünner Bluse abzeichnen, lassen kann. Natalie weist Witalis Annäherung mit dem Hinweis ab, er liebe bekanntlich Sonja. Der Lügner Witali verneint. Als Natalie nach Woronesch abreisen muss, wird sie von Witali bestürmt. Natalie gesteht Witali im Gegenzug ihre Liebe und gestattet ihm einen Besuch zu Hause bei ihren Eltern.

Sonja und Witali setzen auf dem Gut des Ulanen ihre stürmischen Nächte unter Sonjas leitmotivischem Ausruf „… nimm mich ganz … !“ fort.

Natalie und Alexej Mestscherski heiraten auf Blagodatnoje. Witali studiert in Moskau.

Als Alexej nach wenigen Jahren Ehe an einem Herzschlag stirbt, muss Witali im Auftrage seiner bejahrten Eltern an der Beerdigung teilnehmen. Witali begegnet Natalie auf Blagodatnoje wieder. Die Witwe trägt ihr Kleinkind auf dem Arm.

Nach dem Studium sterben Witalis Eltern bald running wrist pouch. Er führt das ererbte Gut und lebt dort mit Glascha, einem ehemaligen Zimmermädchen seiner Mutter. Das Paar bekommt einen Jungen. Witali will heiraten. Glascha verzichtet, weil sie die gnädige Frau nicht spielen möchte. Sie gibt ihn zwar frei, droht aber: Sobald er eine Adlige nähme, ginge sie mit dem Kleinen ins Wasser.

Witali genießt seine „Freiheit“. Während der Heimreise von einem längeren Auslandsaufenthalt steigt er aus dem Zug Moskau-Tula und sucht Natalie vor der Heimfahrt zu Glascha auf. Natalie liebt Witali, wie damals auf dem Gut des Ulanen, immer noch. Die beiden werden ein heimliches Liebespaar. An einem Dezember stirbt Natalie „am Genfer See an einer Frühgeburt“.

James J. Hill

October 16th, 2017

James Jerome Hill (September 16, 1838 – May 29, 1916), was a Canadian-American railroad executive. He was the chief executive officer of a family of lines headed by the Great Northern Railway, which served a substantial area of the Upper Midwest, the northern Great Plains, and Pacific Northwest. Because of the size of this region and the economic dominance exerted by the Hill lines, Hill became known during his lifetime as “The Empire Builder.”

Hill was born in Eramosa Township, Wellington County, Upper Canada (now Ontario). A childhood accident with a bow and arrow blinded him in the right eye. He had nine years of formal schooling. He attended the Rockwood Academy for a short while, where the head gave him free tuition. He was forced to leave school in 1852 due to the death of his father. By the time he had finished, he was adept at algebra, geometry, land surveying, and English. His particular talents for English and mathematics would be critical later in his life.

After working as a clerk in Kentucky (during which he learned bookkeeping), Hill decided to permanently move to the United States and settled in St. Paul, Minnesota, at the age of 18. His first job in St. Paul was with a steamboat company enzymes in meat tenderizer, where he worked as a bookkeeper. By 1860, he was working for wholesale grocers, for whom he handled freight transfers, especially dealing with railroads and steamboats. Through this work, he learned all aspects of the freight and transportation business. During this period, Hill began to work for himself for the first time. During the winter months when the Mississippi River was frozen and steamboats could not run, Hill started bidding on other contracts and won quite a few.[citation needed]

Because of his previous experiences in shipping and fuel supply, Hill was able to enter both the coal and steamboat businesses. In 1870, he and his partners started the Red River Transportation Company, which offered steam boat transportation between St. Paul and Winnipeg. By 1879 he had a local monopoly by merging (with Norman Kittson). In 1867, Hill entered the coal business, and by 1879 it had expanded five times over, giving Hill a local monopoly in the anthracite coal business. During this same period, Hill also entered into banking and quickly managed to become member of several major banks’ boards of directors. He also bought out bankrupt businesses, built them up again, and then resold them—often gaining a substantial profit. Hill noted that the secret to his success was “work, hard work, intelligent work, and then more work.”

During the Panic of 1873, a number of railroads, including the St. Paul and Pacific Railroad (StP&P), had gone bankrupt. The StP&P in particular was caught in an almost hopeless legal muddle. For James Hill it was a golden opportunity. For three years, Hill researched the StP&P and finally concluded that it would be possible to make a good deal of money off the StP&P, provided that the initial capital could be found. Hill teamed up with Norman Kittson (the man he had merged steamboat businesses with), Donald Smith, George Stephen and John Stewart Kennedy. Together they not only bought the railroad, they also vastly expanded it by bargaining for trackage rights with the Northern Pacific Railway. In May 1879, the St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Manitoba Railway Co. (StPM&M) formed—with James J. Hill as general manager. His first goal was to expand and upgrade even more.

Hill was a hands-on, detail-obsessed manager. A Canadian himself of Scotch-Irish Protestant ancestry, he brought in many men with the same background into high management. He wanted people to settle along his rail lines, so he sold homesteads to immigrants while transporting them to their new homes using his rail lines. When he was looking for the best path for one of his tracks to take, he went on horseback and scouted it personally. Under his management, StPM&M prospered. In 1880, its net worth was $728,000; in 1885 it was $25,000,000.

One of his challenges at this point was the avoidance of federal action against railroads. If the federal government believed that the railroads were making too much profit, they might see this as an opportunity to force lowering of the railway tariff rates. Hill avoided this by investing a large portion of the railroad’s profit back into the railroad itself—and charged those investments to operating expense. It was at this point that Hill went from general manager to the official president of StPM&M, and thereafter decided to expand the rail lines.

Between 1883 and 1889, Hill built his railroads across Minnesota, into Wisconsin, and across North Dakota to Montana.

When there was not enough industry in the areas Hill was building, Hill brought the industry in, often by buying out a company and placing plants along his railroad lines. By 1889, Hill decided that his future lay in expanding into a transcontinental railroad.

“What we want,” Hill is quoted as saying, “is the best possible line, shortest distance, lowest grades, and least curvature we can build. We do not care enough for Rocky Mountains scenery to spend a large sum of money developing it.” Hill got what he wanted, and in January 1893 his Great Northern Railway, running from St. Paul, Minnesota to Seattle, Washington — a distance of more than 1,700 miles (2,700 km) — was completed. The Great Northern was the first transcontinental built without public money and just a few land grants, and was one of the few transcontinental railroads not to go bankrupt.

Hill chose to build his railroad north of the competing Northern Pacific line, which had reached the Pacific Northwest over much more difficult terrain with more bridges, steeper grades, and tunnelling. Hill did much of the route planning himself, travelling over proposed routes on horseback. The key to the Great Northern line was Hill’s use of the previously unmapped Marias Pass. The pass had initially been described by Lewis and Clark in 1805, but no one since had been able to find it so Hill hired Santiago Jameson to search it out. Jameson discovered the pass 1889 and it shortened the Grand Northern’s route by almost one hundred miles. The pass had been discovered by John Frank Stevens, principal engineer of the Great Northern Railway, in December 1889, and offered an easier route across the Rockies than that taken by the Northern Pacific. The Great Northern reached Seattle in 1893.

In 1898 Hill purchased control of large parts of the Mesabi Range iron mining district in Minnesota, along with its rail lines. The Great Northern began large-scale shipment of ore to the steel mills of the Midwest.

The Great Northern energetically promoted settlement along its lines in North Dakota and Montana, especially by German and Scandinavians from Europe. The Great Northern bought its lands from the federal government—it received no land grants—and resold them to farmers at cheap prices. It operated agencies in Germany and Scandinavia that promoted its lands, and brought families over at low cost. Hill also invested in founding schools and churches for these communities and promoted a variety of progressive techniques to ensure they prospered. This “Dakota Boom” peaked in 1882 as 42,000 immigrants, largely from northern Europe, poured into the Red River Valley running through the region. The rapidly increasing settlement in North Dakota’s Red River Valley along the Minnesota border between 1871 and 1890 was a major example of large-scale “bonanza” farming.[8][9][10]

Six months after the railroad reached Seattle came the deep nationwide depression called the Panic of 1893. Hill’s leadership became a case study in the successful management of a capital-intensive business during the economic downturn. In order to ensure that he did not lose his patronage during the crisis, Hill lowered rail tariff shipping rates for farmers and gave credit to many of the businesses he owned so they could continue paying their workers. He also took strong measures to economize—in just one year, Hill cut the railway’s expense of carrying a ton of freight by 13%. Because of these measures, Hill not only stayed in business, but also increased the net worth of his railroad by nearly $10 million. Meanwhile, nearly every other transcontinental railroad went bankrupt. His ability to ride out the depression garnered him fame and admiration. Hill saved money by repeatedly cutting wages, made possible by a time of deflation when prices were falling generally.

In 1893, Hill began the process of looking for a source of labor other than Chinese workers. For a brief period of time, he hired Italian and Greek laborers, but company officials were not satisfied with their performance. Hill sent emissaries to the Pacific who found that Japan had the most potential in the market of “Oriental Trade,” and he decided to capitalize on this opportunity.

In this time he also began to focus his energies on securing trade with Asian countries. He offered Japanese Industrialists Southern cotton and ship it free if they would compare it with the short staple cotton they were using with the promise of a refund if they were dissatisfied, which they were not. With these friendly relations established Hill managed to secure the industrializing Japanese order for 15,000 tons of rails against competition from England and Belgium. From 1886 to 1905 American exports to Japan leapt from $7.7 million a year to $51.7 million.

Leonard says that after 1900 Hill exhibited poor business judgment regarding one Canadian subsidiary, the Vancouver, Westminster and Yukon Railway Company (VW&Y). He ousted its president John Hendry, thereby worsening the problems, prolonging the delays, and adding to the costs of taking over the VW&Y. Hill’s top aides were careless about details, bookkeeping, correspondence, and reports.

With 1901 and the start of the new century, James Hill now had control of both the Great Northern Railway, and the Northern Pacific (which he had obtained with the help of his friend J. P. Morgan, when that railroad went bankrupt in the depression of the mid-1890s). Hill also wanted control of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy railroad because of its Midwestern lines and access to Chicago. The Union Pacific Railroad was the biggest competitor of Great Northern and Northern Pacific Railroads. Although Great Northern and Northern Pacific were backed by J. P. Morgan and James J. Hill, the Union Pacific was backed not only by its president, Edward H. Harriman, but by the extremely powerful William Rockefeller and Jacob Schiff.

Quietly, Harriman began buying stock in Northern Pacific with the intention of gaining control of Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy. He was within 40,000 shares of control when Hill learned of Harriman’s activities and quickly contacted J. P. Morgan, who ordered his men to buy everything they could get their hands on.

The result was chaos on Wall Street. Northern Pacific stock was forced up to $1,000 per share. Many speculators, who had sold Northern Pacific “short” in the anticipation of a drop in the railroad’s price, faced ruin. The threat of a real economic panic loomed. Neither side could win a distinct advantage, and the parties soon realized that a truce would have to be called. The winners of that truce were Hill and Morgan, who immediately formed the Northern Securities Company with the aim of tying together their three major rail lines. As the Hill-Morgan alliance formed the Northern Securities Company, Theodore Roosevelt became president and turned his energies against the great trusts that were monopolizing trade.

Roosevelt sent his Justice Department to sue the Northern Securities Company in 1902. The Supreme Court in 1904 ordered it to be dissolved as a monopoly. (Ironically, the Burlington Route, Northern Pacific, and Great Northern would later merge in 1970 to form the Burlington Northern Railroad.) This unfortunately ended Hill’s ability to maintain competitive rates in Asian countries and in the subsequent two years American trade with Japan and China dropped 40% (or $41 million). Hill moved on without the benefit of a central company, and acquired the Colorado and Southern Railway lines into Texas. He also built the Spokane, Portland and Seattle Railway. By the time of his death in 1916, James J. Hill was worth more than $53 million (almost $2.5 billion). When his estate was divided his widow received over 16 million, and each of his children received almost 4 million; only 1.5 million was paid in income and inheritance taxes.

The Great Northern Railway and the Northern Pacific tried to merge four times, in 1896, 1901, 1927, and 1955. This last attempt lasted from 1955 until final Supreme Court approval and merger in March, 1970, which created the Burlington Northern Railroad. In 1995, Burlington Northern merged with the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway to become the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway.

In 1867, James J. Hill married Mary Theresa Mehegan, born in 1846 in New York City. They had ten children:

By early 1916 Hill began pouring more attention into philanthropy, donating thousands of dollars to various institutions as he privately struggled with a variety of increasingly painful ailments. His condition deteriorated quickly in mid-May, but even with the help of many respected doctors he was beyond saving. After falling into a coma, he died in his home in St. Paul, Minnesota, on May 29, 1916.[14] Mary Hill died in 1922 and was buried next to her husband by the shore of Pleasant Lake on their North Oaks farm. Because of vandals and curious admirers, both graves were later moved to Resurrection Cemetery in St. Paul for safer keeping.

Politically, Hill was a Bourbon Democrat. The Democratic Party’s continued enchantment with the populist William Jennings Bryan led Hill to support Republican presidential candidates William McKinley (1896 and 1900), Theodore Roosevelt (1904), and William Howard Taft (1908 and 1912).

Hill was also a member of the Jekyll Island Club (aka The Millionaires Club) on Jekyll Island, Georgia, along with J. P. Morgan and William Rockefeller.

Hill was a supporter of free trade and was one of the few supporters of free trade with Canada. In St. Paul, the city’s main library building and the adjoining Hill Business Library were funded by him. In addition, he donated to numerous schools, including the Saint Paul Seminary.

In 1891, after three years of building, construction was completed on a new Hill family home on Summit Avenue in St. Paul. Over 400 workers labored on the project

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. Built at a cost of $930,000 and with 36,000 square feet (3,300 m2), the James J. Hill House was among the city’s largest. As with his business dealings, Hill supervised the construction and design himself, hiring and firing several architects in the process. The house has many early electrical and mechanical systems that predate widespread adoption in modern domestic structures. Upon completion of the Summit Avenue residence, Hill had the family’s old house, which he had constructed in 1878, razed. After the death of Hill’s wife in 1921, the house was donated to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis. It was obtained by the Minnesota Historical Society in 1978 and today is operated as a museum and gallery.

Though a Protestant, Hill maintained a strong philanthropic relationship with the Catholic Church in St. Paul and through the northwest. Hill’s historic home is located next to the Cathedral, largely due to the special relationship Hill’s wife, a practicing Catholic, had with the Diocese. The Hills maintained close ties with Archbishop John Ireland and Hill was a major contributor to the Saint Paul Seminary, Macalester College, Hamline University, the University of St. Thomas, Carleton College, and other educational, religious and charitable organizations. He was the first major donor to the Marquette University School of Medicine.

In order to generate business for his railroad, Hill encouraged European immigrants to settle along his line, often paying for Russian and Scandinavian settlers to travel from Europe. To promote settlement and revenue for his rail business, Hill experimented with agriculture and worked to hybridize Russian wheat for Dakota soil and weather conditions. He also ran model experimental farms in Minnesota such as North Oaks to develop superior livestock and crop yields for the settlers locating near his railroads.

An enthusiastic conservationist, Hill was invited by President Theodore Roosevelt to a governor’s conference on conservation of natural resources, and later appointed to a lands commission.

Drawing on his experience in the development of Minnesota’s Iron Range, Hill was, during 1911–1912, in close contact with Gaspard Farrer of Baring Brothers & Company of London regarding the formation of the Brazilian Iron Ore Company to tap that nation’s rich mineral deposits.

Near the end of his life, Hill played what a recent biographer, Albro Martin, called his “last and greatest role.” After the first punishing year of World War I, the Allied Powers desperately needed financial support to continue the war effort. To that end, Hill was a major figure in the effort launched by J.P. Morgan to float the Anglo-French Bond drive of 1915, which allowed the Allies to purchase much-needed foodstuffs and other supplies. In September 1915, the first public loan, the $500,000,000 Anglo-French loan, was floated after negotiations with the Anglo-French Financial Commission. Concomitantly, the resulting trade in munitions with England and France carried the United States from a depression in 1914 to boom years in 1915 and 1916.

Hillsboro, North Dakota; Hill County, Montana; and Hillyard, Washington (now a neighborhood of Spokane) – are named for him. In 1929, the Great Northern Railway named its flagship passenger train the Empire Builder in his honor. The train continues as Amtrak’s daily Empire Builder, which uses former Great Northern tracks west of St. Paul, Minnesota. The James J. Hill House in St. Paul, Minnesota, is a National Historic Landmark.

In 1887, the Great Northern’s first company headquarters building was constructed in St. Paul. It was designed by James Brodie, who also built the Hill’s house on Summit Avenue. The 1887 building was converted between 2000 and 2004 to a 53 unit condo in the Historic Lowertown District of St. Paul. Hill had seen the devastation done downtown by the Great Chicago Fire. As a result best steak tenderizer, one feature Hill integrated into the construction of the 1887 company headquarters (the Great Northern General Office Building) was barrel vaulted ceilings constructed of brick and railroad steel rails that held up a layer of sand several inches deep. The theory was that if a fire broke out and the ceiling caved in, the sand would drop and retard or suppress the fire.

Hill was intimately involved in the planning and construction (1914–1916) of a new company headquarters in St. Paul (to be known as the Great Northern Office Building), which was to house the corporate staffs of the Great Northern, the Northern Pacific and Hill’s banking enterprises. The 14-story building cost $14 million to construct.

Hill’s heirs established the James J. Hill Reference Library in St. Paul, which is considered by the Small Business Administration the premier source for publicly accessible practical business information in the United States, and many SBA programs rely on the Hill Library’s HillSearch service to provide business information resources to small businesses nationwide. The Hill Library has developed numerous online programs and now serves millions of small business owners worldwide waterproof case for 4s.

In The Great Gatsby, Hill is the man whom Gatsby’s father says Gatsby would have equalled if he had lived long enough.

Hill and his railway are mentioned in the Harry McClintock song “Hallelujah, I’m a Bum.”

In 1959, Hill High in St. Paul, Minnesota, was established as a school from the funds set aside from Hill’s wife for education. The school, which was all-male, consolidated in 1971 with the all-female Archbishop Murray School to form Hill-Murray School in Maplewood, Minnesota.

is a venture capital fund established in 2016 “aligned with James J. Hill’s belief in the cooperation of the production, distribution and exchange of wealth as outlined in his writings”. The Hill library owns 75 shares. As of September 2016, the fund is not yet closed.

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Sandra K. Ellston

October 16th, 2017

Sandra K. Ellston water carriers for runners, also published under the pen names Sandra K. Fischer and Sandra Mason (née Klein, June 18, 1950, in Salem, Oregon) is an American Shakespearean scholar and professor of English and writing at Eastern Oregon University, where she also served as Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences and where she was recipient of the Woman of Vision and Courage Award.

She received a Ph.D jaccard meat. from the University of Oregon in 1980. After that, she was a professor at the State University of New York at Albany, where she received both the President’s and the Chancellor’s Awards for Excellence in Teaching and was Chair of Undergraduate Studies in English and co-director of the Humanities Center. She has conducted research at the Folger Shakespeare Library and received an American Council of Learned Societies grant to participate in the World Shakespeare Conference in Berlin. She specializes in studies of metaphor, particularly metaphors of value and coinage, and is author of Econolingua (1985). Her articles on Renaissance dramatist Elizabeth Cary and on the character Ophelia in Hamlet are widely reprinted. As a Research Fellow at the Oregon State University Center for the Humanities, she applied metaphors of value and valuation to Shakespeare’s history plays. Her scholarly articles appear in various learned journals.

She has spent the last decade as a creative writer of poetry, fiction, creative non-fiction, and drama. Her works appear in various literary magazines, and she was a recipient of the Oregon Literary Arts fellowship award in drama. She is founder and organizer of the Northwest Poets’ Concord.

As Sandra K. Fischer:

Rónald Gómez

October 16th, 2017

Rónald Gómez Gómez (født 24. januar 1975 i Guanacaste) er en costaricansk fotballspiller som spiller for klubben Santos de Guápiles.

Han har deltatt i to VM-sluttspill for Costa Rica. Under VM 2002 scoret han to mål, blant annet ett mot verdensmestrene Brasil. Under VM i Tyskland fire år senere scoret han et mål i den siste gruppespillkampen mot Polen glass bottles for drinks.

I løpet av karrieren har han spilt for klubber i Guatemala, Spania, Hellas og Kypros.

1 Lonnis · 2 Drummond · 3 Marín · 4 Wright · 5 Martínez · 6 López · 7 Fonseca · 8 Solís · 9 Wanchope · 10 Centeno · 11 Gómez · 12 Parks · 13 Vallejos · 14 Rodríguez · 15 Wallace · 16 Bryce · 17 Medford  · 18 Mesén · 19 Cordero · 20 Sunsing · 21 Chinchilla · 22 Castro · 23&nbsp team football uniforms;Morgan · trener: Guimarães

1 Mesén · 2 Drummond · 3 Marín  · 4 Umaña · 5 Martínez · 6 Fonseca · 7 Bolaños · 8 Solís · 9 Wanchope&nbsp best meat tenderizer tool;· 10 Centeno · 11 Gómez · 12 González · 13 Bernard · 14 Azofeifa · 15 Wallace · 16 Hernández · 17 Badilla · 18 Porras · 19 Saborío · 20 Sequeira · 21 Núñez · 22 Rodríguez · 23 Alfaro · trener: Guimarães

Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine

October 16th, 2017

Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion. When used for growth promoting purposes, antibiotics are given at low concentrations for long periods of time. Low concentration of antibiotics, also referred to as subtherapeutic (STA), are given as feed and water additives which improve daily weight gain and feed efficiency through alterations in digestion and disease suppression. Additionally flask water bottle, the use of STA in swine results in healthier animals and reduces the “microbial load” on meat resulting in an assumed decrease in potential Foodborne illness risk msg meat tenderizer. While the benefits of subtherapeutic antibiotic administration are well-documented, there is much concern and debate regarding the development of bacterial antibiotic resistance associated with their use.

This is a specific case of the more general practice of antibiotic use in livestock.

Currently, there appears to be a lack of reliable data associated with the amount of antibiotics used in livestock production. In 2001, the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) published that 24.6 million pounds of antibiotics are used annually for growth promotant purposes. This, they claimed, represented 70% of the antibiotics produced annually in the United States. However, groups such as the Animal Health Institute have taken issue with this figure, accusing the UCS of using questionable methods and assumptions. Listed in Table 1 are the specific types of antibiotics used in swine disease treatment, prevention and growth promotion and their importance in human medicine.

Table 1- Commonly used antibiotics in swine production and their relative importance in human medicine. With regard to human medicine importance, FDA ranks antibiotics as “critically important” (“critical” in the above table), “highly important” (“high” in the table), or “important.” The ranking is based on five criteria from the most important (it is used in treating pathogens that cause foodborne disease) to the least important (there is difficulty in transmitting resistance across genera and species).

Bacterial antibiotic resistance is a process that can occur when bacteria are exposed to STA administration. When a population of bacteria that resides in a hog are exposed to a particular antibiotic for growth promotant purposes, the bacteria that are susceptible to the drug die while the organisms that are resistant will not be affected and will continue to replicate, resulting in a higher proportion of resistant organisms. It has been shown that resistance to antibiotics develops in animals that are fed subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics for growth promoting purposes. Certain bacteria that have the potential to cause human illness, such as Salmonella, that naturally reside in the swine gastrointestinal tracts are constantly exposed to antibiotics. With time, these bacteria become resistant to that class of antibiotics. There is great concern regarding the probability of subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine causing treatment failures in human medicine.

There is concern that use of antibiotics in swine is leading to an increase in resistant bacteria. The reason for concern is that these resistant bacteria could lead to food-borne illness that is less responsive to treatment how to make meat tenderizer at home. Many proponents of the ban cite the “precautionary principle” of public health, which states if there is evidence of harm, the method in question should be avoided. Risk assessment studies have explored the possibility of harm more objectively through causal pathways and model building. These studies show a very small risk of failure of medical treatment due to resistant bacteria caused by the feeding of STA to livestock. For example, a stochastic risk assessment done in 2008 showed that the risk of consequences from an infection with drug resistant Campylobacteriosis was approximately 1 in 82 million.

The general causal pathway depends on a number of variables and probabilities. First, the animal must be harboring resistant bacteria and the bacteria have a probability that they can survive from the animal to the dinner table at infectious doses. Humans must then be exposed to these resistant bacteria by eating undercooked meat or coming into contact with them in the environment. Resistant bacteria and their genetic material that codes for resistance are not only found in food stainless thermos flask, but also the environment. For example, studies have found that resistant bacteria can leak from hog waste lagoons into ground water, creating an exposure through the public water supply. Upon exposure, an individual must develop illness that is severe enough for them to seek medical attention. Factors such as age and immune system condition may influence disease susceptibility, which could impact the severity of disease. If the individual becomes ill and needs medical attention, a physician may prescribe an antibiotic. This pathway depends on the medical doctor’s ability to identify potential antibiotic resistance before prescribing treatment to a patient affected by food-borne illness. If the bacteria causing the illness is resistant to the drug the physician recommended, then the illness will not be improved by the medication. This could potentially lead to increased morbidity and mortality.

In 1999, the European Union banned the use of subtherapeutic antibiotics in livestock. Data from Europe, particularly from Denmark, shows that the prevalence of bacteria resistant to particular antibiotics has decreased since the ban. Some opponents of the use of subtherapeutic antibiotics in swine cite data and results from Europe to support a ban in the United States. They argue that since the ban in Europe, antibiotics resistance has decreased while the overall health of swine has remained the same.

In 2003, the Food and Drug Administration released Guidance #152, which makes recommendations on how to best develop new animal drugs with regard to the potential impacts on human health. In the summer of 2010, the FDA released Guidance #209, which suggests limited livestock use of antibiotics that are medically important to humans. In 2009, Rep. Louise Slaughter introduced HR 1549, otherwise known as The Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act (PAMTA). Under this bill, medically important antibiotics would be phased out in livestock and other restrictions would be placed on antibiotic use in food-producing animals. Some scientists argue that withdrawing antibiotic use will result in more diseased animals, which can result in an increased bacterial load on meat and an increased risk of food-borne illness. Opponents of such a ban argue that the economic implications would be devastating in terms of higher food prices. One study found that the price of pork would increase five cents a pound.

Arcadium

October 16th, 2017

Arcadium war eine britische Psychedelic-Rock-Band der späten 1960er Jahre rund um den Gitarristen, Songwriter und Frontmann Miguel Sergides. Graham Best spielte Bass, Allan Ellwood Orgel, John Albert Parker Schlagzeug und Robert Ellwood die Leadgitarre. Außer dem Schlagzeuger beteiligten sich alle Bandmitglieder auch gesanglich bpa free glass water bottles. Wie viele Bands spielten sie zunächst in Clubs, bis sie bei dem kleinen Label Middle Earth einen Plattenvertrag erhielten healthy water bottle. 1969 erschien ihr erstes und einziges Album Breathe Awhile auf Vinyl best running bands. Das Album wurde im Laufe der Jahre mehrfach neu veröffentlicht, seit 2010 ist es neu abgemischt und um zwei Titel erweitert auf CD erhältlich best water bottle for toddlers. Die jüngste CD-Veröffentlichung ist 2012 beim Label Smd Reper (zu Sony Music gehörig) erschienen.

Die kathedralenartigen Orgelklänge, die verzerrten Gitarrenklänge und die gequälten Gesänge sind Reminiszenzen an Bands wie The Doors, Iron Butterfly und Vanilla Fudge, ganz im Stil der damaligen Zeit.

Nach der Veröffentlichung ihres einzigen Albums verschwanden die Band und ihre Mitglieder in der Versenkung.

Alben

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