Archive for April, 2017

Robert Voves

April 27th, 2017

a Compétitions nationales et continentales officielles uniquement.
b Matchs officiels uniquement.

Robert Voves, né le soccer goalkeeper jerseys, est un joueur de rugby à XV, qui joue en équipe de République tchèque, évoluant au poste de deuxième ligne (2 best office water bottle,02 m pour 116 kg). pratiquant de boxe thai, kick boxing et mma. Palmarès exceptionnel de 37 combats 31 victoires pour 29 KO thermos water bottle replacement parts. Champion de Muay thai de République Tchèque

Débuts en équipe nationale: 22,9.2001 République Tchèque – Belgique.

Robert Voves a connu sa première sélection le 26 février 2005 contre le Portugal.

Il a joué le Championnat Européen des Nations 2004-2006.

Il a disputé un des deux matchs décisifs de la qualification pour la Coupe du monde de rugby à XV 2007.

Common Lisp

April 27th, 2017

Common Lisp (CL) is a dialect of the Lisp programming language, published in ANSI standard document ANSI INCITS 226-1994 (R2004) (formerly X3.226-1994 (R1999)). The Common Lisp HyperSpec, a hyperlinked HTML version, has been derived from the ANSI Common Lisp standard.

The Common Lisp language was developed as a standardized and improved successor of Maclisp. By the early 1980s several groups were already at work on diverse successors to MacLisp: Lisp Machine Lisp (aka ZetaLisp), Spice Lisp, NIL and S-1 Lisp. Common Lisp sought to unify, standardise, and extend the features of these MacLisp dialects. Common Lisp is not an implementation, but rather a language specification. Several implementations of the Common Lisp standard are available, including free and open source software and proprietary products. Common Lisp is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm programming language. It supports a combination of procedural, functional, and object-oriented programming paradigms. As a dynamic programming language, it facilitates evolutionary and incremental software development, with iterative compilation into efficient run-time programs. This incremental development is often done interactively without interrupting the running application.

It also supports optional type annotation and casting, which can be added as necessary at the later profiling and optimization stages, to permit the compiler to generate more efficient code. For instance, fixnum can hold an unboxed integer in a range supported by the hardware and implementation, permitting more efficient arithmetic than on big integers or arbitrary precision types. Similarly, the compiler can be told on a per-module or per-function basis which type safety level is wanted, using optimize declarations.

Common Lisp includes CLOS, an object system that supports multimethods and method combinations. It is often implemented with a Metaobject Protocol.

Common Lisp is extensible through standard features such as Lisp macros (code transformations) and reader macros (input parsers for characters).

Common Lisp provides some backwards compatibility to Maclisp and to John McCarthy’s original Lisp. This allows older Lisp software to be ported to Common Lisp.

Work on Common Lisp started in 1981 after an initiative by ARPA manager Bob Engelmore to develop a single community standard Lisp dialect. Much of the initial language design was done via electronic mail. Guy Lewis Steele, Jr. gave at the 1982 ACM Symposium on LISP and functional programming the first overview of Common Lisp.

The first language documentation was published 1984 as Common Lisp the Language, first edition. A second edition, published in 1990, incorporated many changes to the language, made during the ANSI Common Lisp standardization process. The final ANSI Common Lisp standard then was published in 1994. Since then no update to the standard has been published. Various extensions and improvements to Common Lisp (examples are Unicode, Concurrency, CLOS-based IO) have been provided by implementations and libraries (many available via Quicklisp).

Common Lisp is a dialect of Lisp best glass bottled water; it uses S-expressions to denote both code and data structure. Function calls, macro forms and special forms are written as lists, with the name of the function first, as in these examples:

Common Lisp has many data types.

Number types include integers, ratios, floating-point numbers, and complex numbers. Common Lisp uses bignums to represent numerical values of arbitrary size and precision. The ratio type represents fractions exactly, a facility not available in many languages. Common Lisp automatically coerces numeric values among these types as appropriate.

The Common Lisp character type is not limited to ASCII characters. Most modern implementations allow Unicode characters.

The symbol type is common to Lisp languages, but largely unknown outside them. A symbol is a unique, named data object with several parts: name, value, function, property list and package. Of these, value cell and function cell are the most important. Symbols in Lisp are often used similarly to identifiers in other languages: to hold the value of a variable; however there are many other uses. Normally, when a symbol is evaluated, its value is returned. Some symbols evaluate to themselves, for example all symbols in the keyword package are self-evaluating. Boolean values in Common Lisp are represented by the self-evaluating symbols T and NIL. Common Lisp has namespaces for symbols, called ‘packages’.

A number of functions are available for rounding scalar numeric values in various ways. The function round rounds the argument to the nearest integer, with halfway cases rounded to the even integer. The functions truncate, floor, and ceiling round towards zero, down, or up respectively. All these functions return the discarded fractional part as a secondary value. For example, (floor -2.5) yields -3, 0.5; (ceiling -2.5) yields -2, -0.5; (round 2.5) yields 2, 0.5; and (round 3.5) yields 4, -0.5.

Sequence types in Common Lisp include lists, vectors, bit-vectors, and strings. There are many operations that can work on any sequence type.

As in almost all other Lisp dialects, lists in Common Lisp are composed of conses, sometimes called cons cells or pairs. A cons is a data structure with two slots, called its car and cdr. A list is a linked chain of conses or the empty list. Each cons’s car refers to a member of the list (possibly another list). Each cons’s cdr refers to the next cons—except for the last cons in a list, whose cdr refers to the nil value. Conses can also easily be used to implement trees and other complex data structures; though it is usually advised to use structure or class instances instead. It is also possible to create circular data structures with conses.

Common Lisp supports multidimensional arrays, and can dynamically resize adjustable arrays if required. Multidimensional arrays can be used for matrix mathematics. A vector is a one-dimensional array. Arrays can carry any type as members (even mixed types in the same array) or can be specialized to contain a specific type of members, as in a vector of bits. Usually only a few types are supported. Many implementations can optimize array functions when the array used is type-specialized. Two type-specialized array types are standard: a string is a vector of characters, while a bit-vector is a vector of bits.

Hash tables store associations between data objects. Any object may be used as key or value. Hash tables are automatically resized as needed.

Packages are collections of symbols, used chiefly to separate the parts of a program into namespaces. A package may export some symbols, marking them as part of a public interface. Packages can use other packages.

Structures, similar in use to C structs and Pascal records, represent arbitrary complex data structures with any number and type of fields (called slots). Structures allow single-inheritance.

Classes are similar to structures, but offer more dynamic features and multiple-inheritance. (See CLOS). Classes have been added late to Common Lisp and there is some conceptual overlap with structures. Objects created of classes are called Instances. A special case are Generic Functions. Generic Functions are both functions and instances.

Common Lisp supports first-class functions. For instance, it is possible to write functions that take other functions as arguments or return functions as well. This makes it possible to describe very general operations.

The Common Lisp library relies heavily on such higher-order functions. For example, the sort function takes a relational operator as an argument and key function as an optional keyword argument. This can be used not only to sort any type of data, but also to sort data structures according to a key.

The evaluation model for functions is very simple. When the evaluator encounters a form (f a1 a2...) then it presumes that the symbol named f is one of the following:

If f is the name of a function, then the arguments a1, a2, …, an are evaluated in left-to-right order, and the function is found and invoked with those values supplied as parameters.

The macro defun defines functions where a function definition gives the name of the function, the names of any arguments, and a function body:

Function definitions may include compiler directives, known as declarations, which provide hints to the compiler about optimization settings or the data types of arguments. They may also include documentation strings (docstrings), which the Lisp system may use to provide interactive documentation:

Anonymous functions (function literals) are defined using lambda expressions, e.g. (lambda (x) (* x x)) for a function that squares its argument. Lisp programming style frequently uses higher-order functions for which it is useful to provide anonymous functions as arguments.

Local functions can be defined with flet and labels.

There are a number of other operators related to the definition and manipulation of functions. For instance, a function may be compiled with the compile operator. (Some Lisp systems run functions using an interpreter by default unless instructed to compile; others compile every function).

The macro defgeneric defines generic functions. The macro defmethod defines methods. Generic functions are a collection of methods.

Methods can specialize their parameters over CLOS standard classes, system classes, structure classes or objects. For many types there are corresponding system classes.

When a generic function is called, multiple-dispatch will determine the effective method to use.

Generic Functions are also a first class data type. There are many more features to Generic Functions and Methods than described above football shirt shop.

The namespace for function names is separate from the namespace for data variables. This is a key difference between Common Lisp and Scheme. For Common Lisp, operators that define names in the function namespace include defun, flet, labels, defmethod and defgeneric.

To pass a function by name as an argument to another function, one must use the function special operator, commonly abbreviated as #'. The first sort example above refers to the function named by the symbol > in the function namespace, with the code #'>. Conversely, to call a function passed in such a way, one would use the funcall operator on the argument.

Scheme’s evaluation model is simpler: there is only one namespace, and all positions in the form are evaluated (in any order) — not just the arguments. Code written in one dialect is therefore sometimes confusing to programmers more experienced in the other. For instance, many Common Lisp programmers like to use descriptive variable names such as list or string which could cause problems in Scheme, as they would locally shadow function names.

Whether a separate namespace for functions is an advantage is a source of contention in the Lisp community. It is usually referred to as the Lisp-1 vs. Lisp-2 debate. Lisp-1 refers to Scheme’s model and Lisp-2 refers to Common Lisp’s model. These names were coined in a 1988 paper by Richard P. Gabriel and Kent Pitman, which extensively compares the two approaches.

Common Lisp supports the concept of multiple values, where any expression always has a single primary value, but it might also have any number of secondary values, which might be received and inspected by interested callers. This concept is distinct from returning a list value, as the secondary values are fully optional, and passed via a dedicated side channel. This means that callers may remain entirely unaware of the secondary values being there if they have no need for them, and it makes it convenient to use the mechanism for communicating information that is sometimes useful, but not always necessary. For example,

Multiple values are supported by a handful of standard forms, most common of which are the MULTIPLE-VALUE-BIND special form for accessing secondary values and VALUES for returning multiple values:

Other data types in Common Lisp include:

Like programs in many other programming languages, Common Lisp programs make use of names to refer to variables, functions, and many other kinds of entities. Named references are subject to scope.

The association between a name and the entity which the name refers to is called a binding.

Scope refers to the set of circumstances in which a name is determined to have a particular binding.

The circumstances which determine scope in Common Lisp include:

To understand what a symbol refers to, the Common Lisp programmer must know what kind of reference is being expressed, what kind of scope it uses if it is a variable reference (dynamic versus lexical scope), and also the run-time situation: in what environment is the reference resolved, where was the binding introduced into the environment, et cetera.

Some environments in Lisp are globally pervasive. For instance, if a new type is defined, it is known everywhere thereafter. References to that type look it up in this global environment.

One type of environment in Common Lisp is the dynamic environment. Bindings established in this environment have dynamic extent, which means that a binding is established at the start of the execution of some construct, such as a let block, and disappears when that construct finishes executing: its lifetime is tied to the dynamic activation and deactivation of a block. However, a dynamic binding is not just visible within that block; it is also visible to all functions invoked from that block. This type of visibility is known as indefinite scope. Bindings which exhibit dynamic extent (lifetime tied to the activation and deactivation of a block) and indefinite scope (visible to all functions which are called from that block) are said to have dynamic scope.

Common Lisp has support for dynamically scoped variables, which are also called special variables. Certain other kinds of bindings are necessarily dynamically scoped also, such as restarts and catch tags. Function bindings cannot be dynamically scoped using flet (which only provides lexically scoped function bindings), but function objects (a first-level object in Common Lisp) can be assigned to dynamically scoped variables, bound using let in dynamic scope, then called using funcall or APPLY.

Dynamic scope is extremely useful because it adds referential clarity and discipline to global variables. Global variables are frowned upon in computer science as potential sources of error, because they can give rise to ad-hoc, covert channels of communication among modules that lead to unwanted, surprising interactions.

In Common Lisp, a special variable which has only a top-level binding behaves just like a global variable in other programming languages. A new value can be stored into it, and that value simply replaces what is in the top-level binding. Careless replacement of the value of a global variable is at the heart of bugs caused by use of global variables. However, another way to work with a special variable is to give it a new, local binding within an expression. This is sometimes referred to as “rebinding” the variable. Binding a dynamically scoped variable temporarily creates a new memory location for that variable, and associates the name with that location. While that binding is in effect, all references to that variable refer to the new binding; the previous binding is hidden. When execution of the binding expression terminates, the temporary memory location is gone, and the old binding is revealed, with the original value intact. Of course, multiple dynamic bindings for the same variable can be nested.

In Common Lisp implementations which support multithreading, dynamic scopes are specific to each thread of execution. Thus special variables serve as an abstraction for thread local storage. If one thread rebinds a special variable, this rebinding has no effect on that variable in other threads. The value stored in a binding can only be retrieved by the thread which created that binding. If each thread binds some special variable *x*, then *x* behaves like thread-local storage. Among threads which do not rebind *x*, it behaves like an ordinary global: all of these threads refer to the same top-level binding of *x*.

Dynamic variables can be used to extend the execution context with additional context information which is implicitly passed from function to function without having to appear as an extra function parameter. This is especially useful when the control transfer has to pass through layers of unrelated code, which simply cannot be extended with extra parameters to pass the additional data. A situation like this usually calls for a global variable. That global variable must be saved and restored, so that the scheme doesn’t break under recursion: dynamic variable rebinding takes care of this. And that variable must be made thread-local (or else a big mutex must be used) so the scheme doesn’t break under threads: dynamic scope implementations can take care of this also.

In the Common Lisp library, there are many standard special variables. For instance, all standard I/O streams are stored in the top-level bindings of well-known special variables. The standard output stream is stored in *standard-output*.

Suppose a function foo writes to standard output:

To capture its output in a character string, *standard-output* can be bound to a string stream and called:

Common Lisp supports lexical environments. Formally, the bindings in a lexical environment have lexical scope and may have either indefinite extent or dynamic extent, depending on the type of namespace. Lexical scope means that visibility is physically restricted to the block in which the binding is established. References which are not textually (i.e. lexically) embedded in that block simply do not see that binding.

The tags in a TAGBODY have lexical scope. The expression (GO X) is erroneous if it is not actually embedded in a TAGBODY which contains a label X. However, the label bindings disappear when the TAGBODY terminates its execution, because they have dynamic extent. If that block of code is re-entered by the invocation of a lexical closure, it is invalid for the body of that closure to try to transfer control to a tag via GO:

When the TAGBODY is executed, it first evaluates the setf form which stores a function in the special variable *stashed*. Then the (go end-label) transfers control to end-label, skipping the code (print “Hello”). Since end-label is at the end of the tagbody, the tagbody terminates, yielding NIL. Suppose that the previously remembered function is now called:

This situation is erroneous. One implementation’s response is an error condition containing the message, “GO: tagbody for tag SOME-LABEL has already been left”. The function tried to evaluate (go some-label), which is lexically embedded in the tagbody, and resolves to the label. However, the tagbody isn’t executing (its extent has ended), and so the control transfer cannot take place.

Local function bindings in Lisp have lexical scope, and variable bindings also have lexical scope by default. By contrast with GO labels, both of these have indefinite extent. When a lexical function or variable binding is established, that binding continues to exist for as long as references to it are possible, even after the construct which established that binding has terminated. References to lexical variables and functions after the termination of their establishing construct are possible thanks to lexical closures.

Lexical binding is the default binding mode for Common Lisp variables. For an individual symbol, it can be switched to dynamic scope, either by a local declaration, by a global declaration. The latter may occur implicitly through the use of a construct like DEFVAR or DEFPARAMETER. It is an important convention in Common Lisp programming that special (i.e. dynamically scoped) variables have names which begin and end with an asterisk sigil * in what is called the “earmuff convention”. If adhered to, this convention effectively creates a separate namespace for special variables, so that variables intended to be lexical are not accidentally made special.

Lexical scope is useful for several reasons.

Firstly, references to variables and functions can be compiled to efficient machine code, because the run-time environment structure is relatively simple. In many cases it can be optimized to stack storage phone running belt, so opening and closing lexical scopes has minimal overhead. Even in cases where full closures must be generated, access to the closure’s environment is still efficient; typically each variable becomes an offset into a vector of bindings, and so a variable reference becomes a simple load or store instruction with a base-plus-offset addressing mode.

Secondly, lexical scope (combined with indefinite extent) gives rise to the lexical closure, which in turn creates a whole paradigm of programming centered around the use of functions being first-class objects, which is at the root of functional programming.

Thirdly, perhaps most importantly, even if lexical closures are not exploited, the use of lexical scope isolates program modules from unwanted interactions. Due to their restricted visibility, lexical variables are private. If one module A binds a lexical variable X, and calls another module B, references to X in B will not accidentally resolve to the X bound in A. B simply has no access to X. For situations in which disciplined interactions through a variable are desirable, Common Lisp provides special variables. Special variables allow for a module A to set up a binding for a variable X which is visible to another module B, called from A. Being able to do this is an advantage, and being able to prevent it from happening is also an advantage; consequently, Common Lisp supports both lexical and dynamic scope.

A macro in Lisp superficially resembles a function in usage. However, rather than representing an expression which is evaluated, it represents a transformation of the program source code. The macro gets the source it surrounds as arguments, binds them to its parameters and computes a new source form. This new form can also use a macro. The macro expansion is repeated until the new source form does not use a macro. The final computed form is the source code executed at runtime.

Typical uses of macros in Lisp:

Various standard Common Lisp features also need to be implemented as macros, such as:

Macros are defined by the defmacro macro. The special operator macrolet allows the definition of local (lexically scoped) macros. It is also possible to define macros for symbols using define-symbol-macro and symbol-macrolet.

Paul Graham’s book On Lisp describes the use of macros in Common Lisp in detail. Doug Hoyte’s book Let Over Lambda extends the discussion on macros, claiming “Macros are the single greatest advantage that lisp has as a programming language and the single greatest advantage of any programming language.” Hoyte provides several examples of iterative development of macros.

Macros allow Lisp programmers to create new syntactic forms in the language. One typical use is to create new control structures. The example macro provides an until looping construct. The syntax is:

The macro definition for until:

tagbody is a primitive Common Lisp special operator which provides the ability to name tags and use the go form to jump to those tags. The backquote ` provides a notation that provides code templates, where the value of forms preceded with a comma are filled in. Forms preceded with comma and at-sign are spliced in. The tagbody form tests the end condition. If the condition is true, it jumps to the end tag. Otherwise the provided body code is executed and then it jumps to the start tag.

An example form using above until macro:

The code can be expanded using the function macroexpand-1. The expansion for above example looks like this:

During macro expansion the value of the variable test is (= (random 10) 0) and the value of the variable body is ((write-line “Hello”)). The body is a list of forms.

Symbols are usually automatically upcased. The expansion uses the TAGBODY with two labels. The symbols for these labels are computed by GENSYM and are not interned in any package. Two go forms use these tags to jump to. Since tagbody is a primitive operator in Common Lisp (and not a macro), it will not be expanded into something else. The expanded form uses the when macro, which also will be expanded. Fully expanding a source form is called code walking.

In the fully expanded (walked) form, the when form is replaced by the primitive if:

All macros must be expanded before the source code containing them can be evaluated or compiled normally. Macros can be considered functions that accept and return abstract syntax trees (Lisp S-expressions). These functions are invoked before the evaluator or compiler to produce the final source code. Macros are written in normal Common Lisp, and may use any Common Lisp (or third-party) operator available.

Common Lisp macros are capable of what is commonly called variable capture, where symbols in the macro-expansion body coincide with those in the calling context, allowing the programmer to create macros wherein various symbols have special meaning. The term variable capture is somewhat misleading, because all namespaces are vulnerable to unwanted capture, including the operator and function namespace, the tagbody label namespace, catch tag, condition handler and restart namespaces.

Variable capture can introduce software defects. This happens in one of the following two ways:

The Scheme dialect of Lisp provides a macro-writing system which provides the referential transparency that eliminates both types of capture problem. This type of macro system is sometimes called “hygienic”, in particular by its proponents (who regard macro systems which do not automatically solve this problem as unhygienic).[citation needed]

In Common Lisp, macro hygiene is ensured one of two different ways.

One approach is to use gensyms: guaranteed-unique symbols which can be used in a macro-expansion without threat of capture. The use of gensyms in a macro definition is a manual chore, but macros can be written which simplify the instantiation and use of gensyms. Gensyms solve type 2 capture easily, but they are not applicable to type 1 capture in the same way, because the macro expansion cannot rename the interfering symbols in the surrounding code which capture its references. Gensyms could be used to provide stable aliases for the global symbols which the macro expansion needs. The macro expansion would use these secret aliases rather than the well-known names, so redefinition of the well-known names would have no ill effect on the macro.

Another approach is to use packages. A macro defined in its own package can simply use internal symbols in that package in its expansion. The use of packages deals with type 1 and type 2 capture.

However, packages don’t solve the type 1 capture of references to standard Common Lisp functions and operators. The reason is that the use of packages to solve capture problems revolves around the use of private symbols (symbols in one package, which are not imported into, or otherwise made visible in other packages). Whereas the Common Lisp library symbols are external, and frequently imported into or made visible in user-defined packages.

The following is an example of unwanted capture in the operator namespace, occurring in the expansion of a macro:

The until macro will expand into a form which calls do which is intended to refer to the standard Common Lisp macro do. However, in this context, do may have a completely different meaning, so until may not work properly.

Common Lisp solves the problem of the shadowing of standard operators and functions by forbidding their redefinition. Because it redefines the standard operator do, the preceding is actually a fragment of non-conforming Common Lisp, which allows implementations to diagnose and reject it.

The condition system is responsible for exception handling in Common Lisp. It provides conditions, handlers and restarts. Conditions are objects describing an exceptional situation (for example an error). If a condition is signaled, the Common Lisp system searches for a handler for this condition type and calls the handler. The handler can now search for restarts and use one of these restarts to automatically repair the current problem, using information such as the condition type and any relevant information provided as part of the condition object, and call the appropriate restart function.

These restarts, if unhandled by code, can be presented to users (as part of a user interface, that of a debugger for example), so that the user can select and invoke one of the available restarts. Since the condition handler is called in the context of the error (without unwinding the stack), full error recovery is possible in many cases, where other exception handling systems would have already terminated the current routine. The debugger itself can also be customized or replaced using the *debugger-hook* dynamic variable. Code found within unwind-protect forms such as finalizers will also be executed as appropriate despite the exception.

In the following example (using Symbolics Genera) the user tries to open a file in a Lisp function test called from the Read-Eval-Print-LOOP (REPL), when the file does not exist. The Lisp system presents four restarts. The user selects the Retry OPEN using a different pathname restart and enters a different pathname (lispm-init.lisp instead of lispm-int.lisp). The user code does not contain any error handling code. The whole error handling and restart code is provided by the Lisp system, which can handle and repair the error without terminating the user code.

Common Lisp includes a toolkit for object-oriented programming, the Common Lisp Object System or CLOS, which is one of the most powerful object systems available in any language. For example, Peter Norvig explains how many Design Patterns are simpler to implement in a dynamic language with the features of CLOS (Multiple Inheritance, Mixins, Multimethods, Metaclasses, Method combinations, etc.). Several extensions to Common Lisp for object-oriented programming have been proposed to be included into the ANSI Common Lisp standard, but eventually CLOS was adopted as the standard object-system for Common Lisp. CLOS is a dynamic object system with multiple dispatch and multiple inheritance, and differs radically from the OOP facilities found in static languages such as C++ or Java. As a dynamic object system, CLOS allows changes at runtime to generic functions and classes. Methods can be added and removed, classes can be added and redefined, objects can be updated for class changes and the class of objects can be changed.

CLOS has been integrated into ANSI Common Lisp. Generic Functions can be used like normal functions and are a first-class data type. Every CLOS class is integrated into the Common Lisp type system. Many Common Lisp types have a corresponding class. There is more potential use of CLOS for Common Lisp. The specification does not say whether conditions are implemented with CLOS. Pathnames and streams could be implemented with CLOS. These further usage possibilities of CLOS for ANSI Common Lisp are not part of the standard. Actual Common Lisp implementations are using CLOS for pathnames, streams, input/output, conditions, the implementation of CLOS itself and more.

Several implementations of earlier Lisp dialects provided both an interpreter and a compiler. Unfortunately often the semantics were different. These earlier Lisps implemented lexical scoping in the compiler and dynamic scoping in the interpreter. Common Lisp requires that both the interpreter and compiler use lexical scoping by default. The Common Lisp standard describes both the semantics of the interpreter and a compiler. The compiler can be called using the function compile for individual functions and using the function compile-file for files. Common Lisp allows type declarations and provides ways to influence the compiler code generation policy. For the latter various optimization qualities can be given values between 0 (not important) and 3 (most important): speed, space, safety, debug and compilation-speed.

There is also a function to evaluate Lisp code: eval. eval takes code as pre-parsed s-expressions and not, like in some other languages, as text strings. This way code can be constructed with the usual Lisp functions for constructing lists and symbols and then this code can be evaluated with the function eval. Several Common Lisp implementations (like Clozure CL and SBCL) are implementing eval using their compiler. This way code is compiled, even though it is evaluated using the function eval.

The file compiler is invoked using the function compile-file. The generated file with compiled code is called a fasl (from fast load) file. These fasl files and also source code files can be loaded with the function load into a running Common Lisp system. Depending on the implementation, the file compiler generates byte-code (for example for the Java Virtual Machine), C language code (which then is compiled with a C compiler) or, directly, native code.

Common Lisp implementations can be used interactively, even though the code gets fully compiled. The idea of an Interpreted language thus does not apply for interactive Common Lisp.

The language makes distinction between read-time, compile-time, load-time and run-time, and allows user code to also make this distinction to perform the wanted type of processing at the wanted step.

Some special operators are provided to especially suit interactive development; for instance, defvar will only assign a value to its provided variable if it wasn’t already bound, while defparameter will always perform the assignment. This distinction is useful when interactively evaluating, compiling and loading code in a live image.

Some features are also provided to help writing compilers and interpreters. Symbols consist of first-level objects and are directly manipulable by user code. The progv special operator allows to create lexical bindings programmatically, while packages are also manipulable. The Lisp compiler itself is available at runtime to compile files or individual functions. These make it easy to use Lisp as an intermediate compiler or interpreter for another language.

The following program calculates the smallest number of people in a room for whom the probability of completely unique birthdays is less than 50% (the birthday paradox, where for 1 person the probability is obviously 100%, for 2 it is 364/365, etc.). The answer is 23.

Calling the example function using the REPL (Read Eval Print Loop):

We define a class person and a method for displaying the name and age of a person. Next we define a group of persons as a list of person objects. Then we iterate over the sorted list.

It prints the three names with descending age.

Use of the LOOP macro is demonstrated:

Example use:

Compare with the built in exponentiation:

WITH-OPEN-FILE is a macro that opens a file and provides a stream. When the form is returning, the file is automatically closed. FUNCALL calls a function object. The LOOP collects all lines that match the predicate.

The function AVAILABLE-SHELLS calls above function LIST-MATCHING-LINES with a pathname and an anonymous function as the predicate. The predicate returns the pathname of a shell or NIL (if the string is not the filename of a shell).

Example results (on Mac OS X 10.6):

Common Lisp is most frequently compared with, and contrasted to, Scheme—if only because they are the two most popular Lisp dialects. Scheme predates CL, and comes not only from the same Lisp tradition but from some of the same engineers—Guy L. Steele, with whom Gerald Jay Sussman designed Scheme, chaired the standards committee for Common Lisp.

Common Lisp is a general-purpose programming language, in contrast to Lisp variants such as Emacs Lisp and AutoLISP which are extension languages embedded in particular products. Unlike many earlier Lisps, Common Lisp (like Scheme) uses lexical variable scope by default for both interpreted and compiled code.

Most of the Lisp systems whose designs contributed to Common Lisp—such as ZetaLisp and Franz Lisp—used dynamically scoped variables in their interpreters and lexically scoped variables in their compilers. Scheme introduced the sole use of lexically scoped variables to Lisp; an inspiration from ALGOL 68 which was widely recognized as a good idea. CL supports dynamically scoped variables as well, but they must be explicitly declared as “special”. There are no differences in scoping between ANSI CL interpreters and compilers.

Common Lisp is sometimes termed a Lisp-2 and Scheme a Lisp-1, referring to CL’s use of separate namespaces for functions and variables. (In fact, CL has many namespaces, such as those for go tags, block names, and loop keywords). There is a long-standing controversy between CL and Scheme advocates over the tradeoffs involved in multiple namespaces. In Scheme, it is (broadly) necessary to avoid giving variables names which clash with functions; Scheme functions frequently have arguments named lis, lst, or lyst so as not to conflict with the system function list. However, in CL it is necessary to explicitly refer to the function namespace when passing a function as an argument—which is also a common occurrence, as in the sort example above.

CL also differs from Scheme in its handling of boolean values. Scheme uses the special values #t and #f to represent truth and falsity. CL follows the older Lisp convention of using the symbols T and NIL, with NIL standing also for the empty list. In CL, any non-NIL value is treated as true by conditionals, such as if, whereas in Scheme all non-#f values are treated as true. These conventions allow some operators in both languages to serve both as predicates (answering a boolean-valued question) and as returning a useful value for further computation, but in Scheme the value ‘() which is equivalent to NIL in Common Lisp evaluates to true in a boolean expression.

Lastly, the Scheme standards documents require tail-call optimization, which the CL standard does not. Most CL implementations do offer tail-call optimization, although often only when the programmer uses an optimization directive. Nonetheless, common CL coding style does not favor the ubiquitous use of recursion that Scheme style prefers—what a Scheme programmer would express with tail recursion, a CL user would usually express with an iterative expression in do, dolist, loop, or (more recently) with the iterate package.

See the Category Common Lisp implementations.

Common Lisp is defined by a specification (like Ada and C) rather than by one implementation (like Perl before version 6). There are many implementations, and the standard details areas in which they may validly differ.

In addition, implementations tend to come with extensions, which provide functionality not covered in the standard:

Free and open source software libraries have been created to support extensions to Common Lisp in a portable way, and are most notably found in the repositories of the and projects.

Common Lisp implementations may use any mix of native code compilation, byte code compilation or interpretation. Common Lisp has been designed to support incremental compilers, file compilers and block compilers. Standard declarations to optimize compilation (such as function inlining or type specialization) are proposed in the language specification. Most Common Lisp implementations compile source code to native machine code. Some implementations can create (optimized) stand-alone applications. Others compile to interpreted bytecode, which is less efficient than native code, but eases binary-code portability. There are also compilers that compile Common Lisp code to C code. The misconception that Lisp is a purely interpreted language is most likely because Lisp environments provide an interactive prompt and that code is compiled one-by-one, in an incremental way. With Common Lisp incremental compilation is widely used.

Some Unix-based implementations (CLISP, SBCL) can be used as a scripting language; that is, invoked by the system transparently in the way that a Perl or Unix shell interpreter is.

See the Category Common Lisp software.

Common Lisp is used to develop research applications (often in Artificial Intelligence), for rapid development of prototypes or for deployed applications.

Common Lisp is used in many commercial applications, including the Yahoo! Store web-commerce site, which originally involved Paul Graham and was later rewritten in C++ and Perl. Other notable examples include:

There also exist open-source applications written in Common Lisp, such as:

Since 2011 Zach Beane, with support of the Common Lisp Foundation, maintains the Quicklisp library manager. It allows easy access to several hundred libraries written in Common Lisp.

A chronological list of books published (or about to be published) about Common Lisp (the language) or about programming with Common Lisp (especially AI programming).

Obwodnica Zambrowa

April 27th, 2017

Obwodnica Zambrowa – obwodnica w ciągu drogi ekspresowej S8, która omija miasto Zambrów i wieś Wiśniewo.

Obwodnica rozpoczyna się kilka kilometrów przed wsią Sędziwuje i przebiega na północ od miasta. Za zjazdem na Sędziwuje i młynem wybudowany jest węzeł Zambrów Zachód ze zjazdem na DK63 (Łomża i Siedlce) i DK66 (Wysokie Mazowieckie, Bielsk Podlaski). Następnie droga, po ominięciu miasta, krzyżuje się z obecną DK8 między Zambrowem a Wiśniewem na węźle Zambrów Wschód. Obwodnica następnie omija Wiśniewo od południa i przebiega nad trasą Wiśniewo – Kołaki Kościelne. Kilka kilometrów za Wiśniewem obwodnica włącza się w dotychczasowy przebieg DK8 meat tenderization.

Obecnie dojazd do miejscowości Sędziwuje możliwy jest poprzez zjechanie z węzła Zambrów Zachód w kierunku Siedlec i następnie skręcając na rondzie w prawo. Zaś dojazd do wsi Wiśniewo umożliwia droga krzyżująca się ze starą drogą krajową nr 8 (ul. Białostocka w Zambrowie) tuż przed węzłem Zambrów Wschód.

Na przełomie maja i czerwca 2008 roku Minister Infrastruktury podpisał decyzje lokalizacyjne. Z tego powodu rozpoczął się wykup gruntów pod planowaną trasę. Do wykupienia było 480 działek.

W drugiej połowie roku 2008 przeprowadzono prace archeologiczne na obszarze przebiegu obwodnicy Zambrowa. 31 marca 2009 r. ogłoszono przetarg na budowę. Decyzja środowiskowa została wydana tego samego dnia where can i buy water in glass bottles. Pozwolenie na budowę dnia 20 kwietnia 2009 podpisał wojewoda podlaski Maciej Żywno. Do budowy obwodnicy zgłosiło się 14 firm i konsorcjów, trwa sprawdzanie ofert pod względem wypełnienia warunków I etapu przetargu. Po selekcji firmy zostaną zaproszone do II etapu, czyli oferty cenowej.

Oprócz głównej obwodnicy Zambrowa, w ramach kontraktu została również wybudowana Południowo-wschodnia obwodnica Zambrowa na odcinku Nagórki-Jabłoń – ul. Ostrowska (obecna DK8).

Do przetargu na budowę obwodnicy, który został rozstrzygnięty w sierpniu 2009 r. stanęło kilkanaście przedsiębiorstw. Najkorzystniejszą ofertę przedstawiła firma Bilfinger Berger. Ta spółka zaoferowała budowę obwodnicy za 325 mln złotych

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Dnia 9 listopada 2009 r. firma Bilfinger Berger podpisała z podlaskim oddziałem GDDKiA w Urzędzie Miasta Zambrów umowę na budowę obwodnicy Zambrowa i wsi Wiśniewo.

Obwodnica została otwarta 2 października 2012 roku.

Niederösterreich

April 27th, 2017

Delstat i Østrig

 – Befolkningstæthed

84 / km²

Niederösterreich er en delstat i Østrig. Den grænser mod Tjekkiet i nord, Slovakiet i nordøst, Burgenland i sydøst, Steiermark i syd og Oberösterreich i vest. Desuden omkranser den Wien.

NIederösterreich er landskabsmæssigt forskelligt sammensat med Alperne mod syd, gavnligt klima og jordbund til frugtdyrkning mod vest og bakkede arealer i øst til gavn for vindyrkning.

Niederösterreich har en befolkning på 1.611.981 (pr. 2012). Landet er inddelt i 4 statutarbyer og 21 distrikter.

Landdagens to største partier er ÖVP og SPÖ med hhv. 31 og 15 mandater.

Navnet Niederösterreich betyder på dansk Nedre Østrig, modsat Oberösterreich, der betyder Øvre Østrig. I middelalderen var Bayern den dominerende magt i området, og set fra Bayern omtaltes området øst for (“neden for”) floden Enns som Niederösterreich. Enns er i dag grænseflod mellem Ober- og Niederösterreich.

Niederösterreich er Østrigs største delstat og har et areal på 19.186 km². 39,6 % er dækket af skov, 0,2 % er bjergområde, 48,7 % anvendes til landbrugsformål og 1,6 % til dyrkning af vin (med 307 km² vinareal ligger 60 % af Østrigs 503 km² vinareal i Niederösterreich). Niederösterreich har den største andel landbrugsareal af de 9 delstater. Længden af statsgrænsen mod Tjekkiet og Slovakiet er 414 km. Floden Morava er grænseflod til Slovakiet og Thaya er grænseflod til Tjekkiet.

Geografisk er Niederösterreich af historiske årsager inddelt i fire regioner: Waldviertel, Weinviertel, Industrieviertel og Mostviertel. Den regionale inddeling har ingen administrativ eller politisk betydning.

Regionerne er geografisk meget forskellige. Mostviertel har udløbere af de nordlige kalkalper med bjerghøjder over 2.000 m.o.h. men har også fladt landskab med det store tektoniske bækken omkring Tulln. Området mellem floderne Ybbs og Enns i Mostviertel giver gode betingelser for frugtavl. Waldviertel er derimod formet af et granit- og gnejsplateau. Weinviertel i den nordøstlige del af Niederösterreich består af et bakket landskab waterproof 4s case, der flader ud mod Moravafeltet i øst, og gør området ideelt til vindyrkning. Den sydøstlige del af Niederösterreich i Industrieviertel er præget af de store grønne arealer i Wienerwald samt bjergområderne mod grænsen til Steiermark.

Hovedparten af Niederösterreichs bjerge er en del af de nordlige kalkalper på grænsen til den sydligt beliggende delstat Steiermark. Niederösterreichs tre højeste bjerge er også beliggende i dette område:

Donau er Niederösterreichs mest markante flod. Med sine 286 km. gennem delstaten afvander den via sine bifloder betydelige arealer af Niederösterreich.

De vigtigste bifloder på den nordlige side af Donau er Ysper, Kamp, Krems, Lainsitz (Lužnice), Morava og Thaya. På den sydlige side af Donau er det Enns, Ybbs, Erlauf, Melk, Pielach, Traisen, Schwechat, Fischa, Schwarza, Triesting, Pitten og Leitha.

Niederösterreich har oplevet et faldende antal fødsler siden 1960’erne. I 1961 var der 25.803 levendefødte i delstaten, mens tallet i 1991 var 17.252 og i 2009 13.641. I 2010 vendte tendensen imidlertid, da antallet af levendefødte steg svagt til 14.004. Antallet af døde var i 2010 15.796, og der var dermed et fødselsunderskud på 1.792 personer. 22.552 personer udvandrede til andre delstater i Østrig (primært til Wien) og 9.743 udvandrede til udlandet i 2010. 25.091 indvandrede til Niederösterreich fra det øvrige Østrig (primært fra Wien) og 12 sports direct goalie gloves.937 indvandrede fra udlandet samme år. Således betød vandringerne i alt 5.733 flere borgere i 2010, hvilket sammenlagt med fødselsunderskuddet gav en befolkningsvækst i 2010 på godt 4.000 personer. Befolkningsprognosen for Niederösterreich viser en befolkningsfremgang på 19 % i 2050, hvilket gør delstaten til den hurtigst voksende i Østrig. For Østrig som helhed forventes en befolkningsvækst på knap 12 %.

Prognosen viser endvidere, at antallet af unge under 15 år er stigende frem til 2050, samt at befolkningen i den erhvervsaktive alder mellem 15 og 60 er stigende frem til 2018, hvorefter den falder i perioden frem til 2050. Således vil der være 9 % flere børn og unge mens antallet i den erhvervsaktive alder vil være status quo. Der bliver til gengæld flere ældre og antallet af indbyggere over 60 år forventes at være steget med 28 % fra 2010 til 2050. Antallet af ældre forventes at udgøre 35 % af befolkningen i 2050 mod 24 % 2010. Ældreandelen i Niederösterreich ligger lidt over landsgennemsnitt på hhv. 23 % i 2012 og 34 % i 2050.

I følge folketællingen fra 2001 er 79,3 % af Niederösterreichs befolkning tilhængere af den romerskkatolske kirke, 3,3 % bekender sig til den protestantiske kirke, 3,2 % bekender sig til islamisme og 10,8 % bekender sig ikke til en trosretning.

Niederösterreich regnes sammen med Oberösterreich som Østrigs oprindelige kernelande. Det var her kejser Otto III. skænkede et landstykke omkring Neuhofen an der Ybbs til biskoppen af Freising i 996, hvor navnet Ostarrîchi, som senere blev til Österreich, første gang nævnes i en skriftlig kilde.

Niederosterreich har flere arkæologiske fundsteder, der viser spor efter neandertalers tilstedeværelse for 70.000 år siden. Det kendteste fundsted er i Wachau. I Niederösterreich har man også fundet de to ældste østrigske kunstværker: Venus fra Galgenberg (den såkaldte Dansende Fanny) fundet i Stratzing er verdens ældste antropomorfe figur. Det er en 7,2 cm. høj kvindelignende figur, der er omkring 30.000 år gammel og fremstillet af amfibolitskifer, samt den 27.000 år gamle Venus fra Willendorf, der er 11 cm. høj og fremstillet af kalksten.

Et af Østrigs ældste fund fra kobberalderen er fundet i Niederösterreich med det såkaldte Stollhofdepot i Hohe Wand indeholdende en række smykker.

Omkring det 6. årtusinde f.kr. bosatte mennesker sig i Niederösterreich, hvilket bl.a. ses fra udgravninger på Galgenberg i Horn. Den neolitiske revolution udviklede landbrugssamfundet, og den båndkeramiske kultur udviklede sig.

Badenkulturen var aktiv omkring 3600 – 2800 f.kr. og er opkaldt efter fund gjort i Baden i Niederösterreich. Kulturen var udbredt i Østrig og Ungarn, men der er også gjort fund i Polen, Serbien, Slovakiet, Tjekkiet, Schweiz og Tyskland. Der var en meget højtudviklet keramikkultur, mens man anvendte kobber til fremstilling af smykker. Man holdt husdyr, og man anvendte 4-hjulede vogne samt benyttede plove i landbruget.

Med urnemarkskulturen i bronzealderen fik man en højere standard for metalforarbejdningen, hvilket bl.a. ses med fund af økser og spydspidser af bronze i grave. Der er blandt andet gjort betydelige fund i Franzhausen i nærheden af St. Pölten i Niederösterreich med over 400 gravsteder.

I det 2. århundrede f.kr. levede kelterne i den sydlige del af Niederösterreich. Kelterne dannede kongeriget Noricum gennem en sammenslutning af flere keltiske stammer under ledelse af norikerne, og det udgjorde den første statsdannelse på østrigsk jord. Dette indbefattede udover det nuværende Kärnten og Steiermark også en del af Niederösterreich; sandsynligvis området mellem Donau og Alperne.

Kelterne udviklede en avanceret forarbejdningsteknologi, og det keltiske jern var højt værdsat af romerne. Kelterne blev efterhånden fortrængt og omkring 15 f.kr football goalkeeper shirts. erobrede kejser Augustus store del af det nuværende Østrig til Donau. Kejser Claudius dannede den romerske provins Noricum, som indbefattede Niederösterreich til Donau, mens Niederösterreich øst for Wienerbækkenet blev underlagt Pannonien. Langs Donau anlagde romerne en limes som forsvar mod nord, og rester heraf kan ses flere steder i Niederösterreich, f spring water in glass bottles.eks. Kastell Cannabiaca i Zeiselmauer.

Med Odoakers sejr over romerne i Noricum i 476 begyndte herefter en kontinuerlig bosættelse af bajuvarer i Noricum. Efter Romerrigets endelige fald i det 6. århundrede, trængte avarerne fra Asien ind i karpaterbækkenet og Pannonien og fortrængte derfra slaverne, der bevægede sig mod sydøst til Balkan og mod vest lang med Drau, Mur og Mürz uden at støde på modstand fra den keltoromanske befolkning.

I 788 indlemmer Karl den Store Bayern som hertugdømme i Frankerriget, og øst for Enns (i Niederösterreich) etablerer han omkring år 800 Avarermarken som grænsemark til beskyttelse mod Avarerne. Avarermarken havde status af markgrevskab. Med traktaten i Verdun tilfaldt Bayern sammen med Avarermarken og Karantanien Østfranken.

I 907 erobrer ungarerne avarermarken, men med Lechfeldslaget i 955 tilbageerobrer Otto den Store området i tysk besiddelse, og bayrerne rykkede dermed atter øst for Enns. De etablerer et markgravskab i det nuværende Niederösterreich, som kaldtes Marchia Orientalis (østlige mark).

I 976 blev Leopold 1. af Babenberg-slægten forlenet med denne mark. I 996 anvendes første gang formelt navnet Ostarrîchi, som senere blev til Österreich. Det skete, da Heinrich I. den 1. november 996 kundgør, at klosteret i Freising får et jordstykke ved Neuhofen an der Ybbs: in regione vulgari vocabulo Ostarrîchi in marcha et in comitatu Heinrici comitis filii Luitpaldi marchionis. Oversat betyder det: i det område, der i folkemunde hedder Østrig, og som ligger i Leopolds søn grev Heinrichs mark og grevskab.

Med Babenbergernes herredømme over området sker der stor udbredelse af bosættelserne i det 11. og 12. århundrede og de opbygger deres magtposition på de indre linjer bl.a. ved mange nye klostergrundlæggelser. Markante klosterbygninger fra denne periode er f.eks. Stift Melk og Stift Klosterneuburg.

I 1156 bliver Ostarrîchi gennem Privilegium Minus ophøjet til et uafhængigt hertugdømme.

I 1278 kommer Niederösterreich under habsburgsk overherredømme. Det lykkedes Hertug Rudolf 4. af Østrig at ophøje Østrig og dermed Niederösterreich til et ærkehertugdømme gennem en række forfalskede dokumenter benævnt Privilegium Maius. Det gav Østrig rettigheder svarende til kurfyrsternes i det Tysk-romerske rige.

Efter at den barnløse ærkehertug Ladislus Postumus (der var den første til at bære titlen ærkehertug af Østrig) døde i 1457 opstod der en strid om arvefordelingen af riget. Striden endte med, at Niederösterreich tilfaldt hans onkel Frederik 3. (der som ærkehertug af Østrig kaldtes Frederik 5.) og Oberösterreich tilfaldt Frederik 3.’s bror Albrecht VI.

Wienerwald uden for Wien blev hårdt ramt under den første tyrkiske belejring af Wien i 1529. Forstæderne omkring Wien blev brændt ned af Wienerne for at sikre forsvaret af Wien, og Osmannernes hær hærgerede området omkring Wienerwald med store østrigske tab til følge.

Den anden tyrkiske belejring af Wien skulle komme til at få endnu større betydning for Niederösterreich. Efter den første belejring af Wien og efter Trediveårskrigen havde Wien rekonstrueret byens forsvarsværker, hvilket betød en længerevarende belejring af området uden for Wien. Belejringen begyndte den 14. juli 1683 og først den 12. september blev tyrkerne slået endegyldigt tilbage ved slaget ved Kahlenberg. Det samtidige tidsskrift Theatrum Europaeum talte om 14.933 nedbrændte landsbyer og 88.209 bortførte personer. Tallet er sandsynligvis overdrevet, men omkostningerne ved belejringen var enorme for Niederösterreich. Tabene var store og det skal tages med i betragtning, at der i 1679 også havde været et udbrud af pest. Der var i de følgende år en stor indvandring fra bl.a. Steiermark, Oberösterreich, Tyrol og Salzburg samt fra områder i Tyskland. I visse byer var det op til halvdelen af befolkningen som blev befolket af disse indvandrere.

Også senere anslag mod Wien har haft betydning for Niederösterreich. Napoleonskrigene medførte plyndringer, voldtægt og tab af menneskeliv ved slagene ved Aspern-Essling og Wagram.

Da 1. verdenskrig var slut og Habsburgernes rige brudt sammen, blev den Første Østrigske Republik udråbt. Niederösterreich blev delstat i den nye republik. Niederösterreich var i 1918 det folkerigeste forbundsland med over 3 mio. indbyggere, hvilket udgjorde mere end halvdelen af Østrigs befolkning. De politiske overbevisninger fra de stærkt repræsenterede konservative på landet mod de i Wien repræsenterede socialdemokrater var svære at forene. Samtidig gav Niederösterreichs størrelse et skævt forhold til de øvrige forbundslande. Derfor skabte man i 1920 forfatningsmæssigt grundlag for at udskille Wien fra Niederösterreich, hvorved Wien i 1922 blev det niende forbundsland.

Niederösterreich bibeholdt dog administration og de politiske organer i Wien indtil man ved en folkeafstemning i 1986 besluttede af gøre St. Pölten til delstatshovedstad.

Niederösterreich har en række kulturinstitutioner og museer fordelt over hele delstaten. Niederösterreichische Landesmuseum i St. Pölten er delstatens største museum, der viser kunst og kultur op gennem Niederösterreichs historie. Andre betydende museer i Niederösterreich er kunstmuseet for samtidskunst Sammlung Essl i Klosterneuburg, Kunsthalle Krems, Egon-Schiele-Museum i Tulln med værker af kunstneren Egon Schiele og Museet for oldtidshistorie i Asparn an der Zaya, der er en satellit af Niederösterreichische Landesmuseum. Endvidere er der udgravninger af den romerske militærlejr Carnuntum 40 km. øst for Wien.

Flere klostre og slotte i Niederösterreich fungerer som kultursamlinger, hvor bl.a. kan nævnes Stift Melk, Stift Klosterneuburg, slottet Schallaburg og Scloss Grafenegg

Feststpielhaus St. Pölten er en musikteaterscene, der blev bygget i 1997 med plads til 1.079 gæster i den store sal. Største teatre er Stadttheater i St. Pölten og Baden. Endvidere afholdes årligt Donaufestival i Krems, hvor der over to weekender i foråret afholdes opvisninger inden for moderne kunst og kultur.

Niederösterreichs landdag består af 56 medlemmer, der vælges for en femårig periode. Delstatsregeringen består af 9 medlemmer og sammensættes efter proportionalitet, dvs. at regeringen sammensættes efter partiernes antal af mandater. Politisk er ÖVP traditionelt det største parti i delstaten, og siden 1945 har delstatsformanden uafbrudt været fra dette parti.

Ved delstatsvalget den 9. marts 2008 fordelte mandaterne i landdagen sig således:

Erwin Pröll (ÖVP) er delstatsformand. Derudover består regeringen af 5 medlemmer fra ÖVP, 2 medlemmer fra SPÖ og 1 medlem fra FPÖ.

Niederösterreich er inddelt i 21 distrikter og 4 statutarbyer. Der endvidere 573 kommuner.

De 4 statutarbyer er (indbyggertal pr. 2012):

De 21 distrikter er følgende (indbyggertal pr. 2012):

Koordinater:

TVNorge

April 26th, 2017

TVNorge (Abkürzung TVN) ist ein norwegischer Fernsehkanal. Der Kanal begann seinen Betrieb am 5. Dezember 1988 und war der erste reklamefinanzierte Fernsehsender in Norwegen. Die Gründer von TVNorge waren Hallvard Flatland, Ola Grønvold, Erik Rynning und Ola Steinsrud.

Im Jahre 1997 kaufte TV 2 49 how do you tenderize meat,33 % der Aktien von TVNorge, verkaufte die Aktien allerdings 2004 an den heute zu Discovery Communications gehörenden Luxemburger Medienkonzern SBS Broadcasting Group.

TVNorge hat 75 Angestellte und über 88,9 % der Norweger können den Kanal empfangen. Nach Anzahl der Zuschauer ist TVNorge Norwegens drittgrößter Fernsehsender. Inhaltlich ist der Sender größtenteils auf Kinder und Jugendliche im Tagesprogramm ausgerichtet. Der größte Anteil der ausgestrahlten Sendungen ist in den USA produziert worden.

Animal Planethd • Discovery Channelhd • Discovery Geschichte • Discovery HD • Eurosport • Eurosport 1hd • Eurosport 2hd • Eurosport 3D • Eurosport 360 HD • TLChd

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Hennaarderadeel

April 26th, 2017

Hennaarderadeel (Fries: Hinnaarderadiel) is een voormalige gemeente in het midden van de provincie Friesland. De gemeente heeft bestaan tot 1984.

Na de gemeentelijke herindeling op 1 januari 1984 is Hennaarderadeel samen met de gemeente Baarderadeel opgegaan in de nieuwe gemeente Littenseradeel. In de plannen die Gedeputeerde Staten in 1979 hadden opgesteld als voorstel voor de gemeentelijke herindeling die in 1984 werd geëffectueerd werd de naam De Greidslachte voorgesteld .

De gemeente Hennaarderadeel bevatte in 1983 veertien dorpen waterproof plastic bags. De hoofdplaats was Wommels. De Nederlandse namen waren de officiële. De plaatsnaamborden in de gemeente waren tweetalig met de Nederlandse naam boven de Friese.

Aantal inwoners per woonkern op 1 januari 1983:

Bron: Provincie Friesland

Een aantal buurtschappen in de gemeente waren: De Klieuw design own football shirt, Hidaarderzijl, Littenserburen, Meilahuizen, Montsamaburen, Westerend, ‘t Schrok, Tjeppenboer en Driehuizen.

Achtkarspelen · Ameland · Baarderadeel · Barradeel · Bolsward · Dantumadeel · Dokkum · Doniawerstal · Ferwerderadeel · Franeker · Franekeradeel · Gaasterland · Haskerland · Harlingen · Heerenveen · Hemelumer Oldeferd · Hennaarderadeel · Hindeloopen · Het Bildt · Idaarderadeel · IJlst · Kollumerland en Nieuwkruisland · Leeuwarden · Leeuwarderadeel · Lemsterland · Menaldumadeel · Oostdongeradeel · Opsterland · Rauwerderhem · Sloten · Smallingerland · Stavoren · Ooststellingwerf · Weststellingwerf · Schiermonnikoog · Sneek · Terschelling · Tietjerksteradeel · Utingeradeel · Vlieland · Westdongeradeel · Wonseradeel · Workum · Wymbritseradeel

Steden en dorpen · Voormalige gemeenten  &nbsp bpa free bottles;  Nederland · Provincies · Gemeenten

Aengwirden (1934) · Baarderadeel (1984) · Barradeel (1984) · Bolsward (2011) · Boornsterhem (2014) · Dokkum (1984) · Doniawerstal (1984) · Franeker (1984) · Gaasterland (1984) · Gaasterland-Sloten (2014) · Haskerland (1984) · Hemelumer Oldeferd (1984) · Hennaarderadeel (1984) · Hindeloopen (1984) · Idaarderadeel (1984) · IJlst (1984) · Lemsterland (2014) · Nijefurd (2011) · Oostdongeradeel (1984) · Rauwerderhem (1984) · Schoterland (1934) · Skarsterlân (2014) · Sloten (1984) · Sneek (2011) · Stavoren (1984) · Tjum (1816) · Utingeradeel (1984) · Westdongeradeel (1984) · Wonseradeel (2011) · Workum (1984) · Wymbritseradeel (1984) · Wymbritseradeel (2010)
Grietenij · Kwartieren van Friesland

Per Gessle

April 25th, 2017

Per Håkan Gessle (uttal: /[ˈgɛslɛ]/), född 12 januari 1959 i Halmstad, är en svensk popsångare, gitarrist och låtskrivare.

Gessle är sedan 1980-talet en av Sveriges mest framgångsrika popartister. Han slog igenom i Sverige som sångare och frontfigur i popgruppen Gyllene Tider. Tillsammans med sångerskan Marie Fredriksson bildade Per Gessle 1986 popduon Roxette som var Sveriges största musikexport åren 1988–1995. I början av 00-talet hade Per Gessle även framgångar som soloartist, med album på både svenska och engelska. Därutöver har han skrivit låtar till en lång rad andra artister.

Per Gessle har alltid haft ett stort intresse för musik och ägde över 100 skivor redan innan han hade fyllt 10 år. Han skrev sin första låt “Symbol of the Autumn” redan som sjuåring men blev riktigt musikaliskt aktiv i tonåren. 1977 bildade han duon Grape Rock tillsammans med Mats “MP” Persson. Duon utvidgades året därpå till popgruppen Gyllene Tider.

Första skivan som Gessle spelade in var en vinylsingel med bandet Peter Pop & The Helicopters (1979). Låtarna på skivan hette “After School” och “Keep My Love Satisfied”.. Per Gessle samarbetade med popartisten Kevin Gullander. Kevin som sedan blev gitarrist i Roxette och Gyllene Tider.

Per startade sin karriär med sitt band Gyllene Tider 1978. Per grundade bandet i sin hemstad Halmstad tillsammans med sina barndomsvänner Mats Persson, Micke Andersson, Anders Herrlin och Göran Fritzon. Gyllene Tider blev snabbt ett av Sveriges populäraste band.

Under andra halvan av 1979 slog Gyllene Tider igenom med låten “Flickorna på TV 2”. Mellan 1980 och 1982 var Gyllene Tider en av Sveriges i särklass populäraste popgrupper. Gruppen fick en rad hits, gav ut tre storsäljande album, och åkte på flera välbesökta folkparksturnéer.

1983 gav Per Gessle ut sitt första soloalbum Per Gessle. Albumet var ett sidoprojekt till Gyllene Tider, som spelades in medan de andra medlemmarna i gruppen var inkallade för militärtjänstgöring. Soloalbumet skilde sig musikaliskt från Gyllene Tider. Gessle ville visa en mer seriös sida av sig själv och låtarna på solodebuten påminde därför lite mer om Ulf Lundell och John Holm, än Gyllene Tiders tonårsinriktade pop.

1984 släppte Gyllene Tider det engelskspråkiga albumet The Heartland Café, som inte blev någon större framgång. Året därpå splittrades Gyllene Tider. 1985 gav Gessle även ut sitt andra soloalbum Scener. Vissa av låtarna på albumet spelades in före Gyllene Tiders uppbrott och byggde vidare på den stil som Gessle hade etablerat på sitt första soloalbum. Efter splittringen kände sig Gessle även tvungen att inkludera en annan typ av låtar, eftersom han nu bara hade en solokarriär. Scener sålde dåligt och Gessles framtid som artist blev plötsligt mycket osäker.

I mitten av 1980-talet fick Gessle dryga ut sin kassa genom att skriva hela låtar eller enbart texter till andra artister och grupper, till exempel “Stjärnhimmel” åt Elisabeth Andreassen (1983). Han skrev även “Kärleken är evig” som Lena Philipsson tävlade med i den svenska Melodifestivalen 1986, där melodin slutade på andra plats. Men karriären vände uppåt igen för Per Gessle redan i mitten av 1986, då Gessle och Marie Fredriksson bildade popduon Roxette.

Roxette fick sitt internationella genombrott i början av 1989, med låten “The Look”. Under 1990-talet genomförde gruppen två stora världsturnéer. Många av gruppens låtar blev stora hits över hela världen och fyra av dem toppade Billboard, den viktigaste topplistan i USA. Roxette har dock haft sin trognaste publik i Europa och Sydamerika. Albumen Look Sharp! (1988), Joyride (1991), Crash! Boom! Bang! (1994), Have a Nice Day (1999) och Room Service (2001) har, tillsammans med flera samlingsalbum, sålt i 75 miljoner exemplar.

Efter den andra världsturnén, som avslutades i mitten av 1995, hade Roxette ett uppehåll. Under pausen ägnade sig Gessle åt flera olika projekt. Gyllene Tider spelade in nya låtar till ett samlingsalbum, som blev en stor framgång i mitten av 1995. I mitten av 1996 gav Gyllene Tider ut ytterligare några nya hits och åkte ut på en sommarturné som blev Skandinaviens största någonsin – med sammanlagt över 300 000 åskådare.

I början av 1996 gav Gessle också ut ett album med gruppen The Lonely Boys, som han bildade tillsammans med Wilmer X-sångaren Nisse Hellberg. The Lonely Boys var dock aldrig tänkt som något annat än ett mindre sidoprojekt.

1997 släppte Gessle sitt tredje soloalbum, tolv år efter Scener. Albumet The World According to Gessle var på engelska och tre av låtarna från det blev hits i Sverige. The World According to Gessle hade knappast några likheter med de två tidigare soloalbumen, utan bestod till stor del av den sortens powerpop som är typisk för Gessle, med enkla och starka refränger. Även om produktionen var modern fick många av låtarna en ljudbild som är inspirerad av den musik som Per Gessle lyssnade på under 1970-talet.

1999 kom han tillbaka till rampljuset, då Roxette hade en hit med “Wish I Could Fly”. Men den 11 september 2002 drabbades Marie Fredriksson av en svår hjärntumör och duon fick hastigt avbryta planerna på en ny Europaturné och andra nya projekt. Det tog lång tid för Marie Fredriksson att bli återställd.

I mitten av 2003 gav Per Gessle ut sitt fjärde soloalbum Mazarin på svenska. Albumet fick strålande recensioner, och blev en stor kommersiell framgång och sålde 240 000 exemplar. “Här kommer alla känslorna”, “På promenad genom stan” och “Tycker om när du tar på mig” blev hits från albumet. Per Gessle hade inte räknat med en sådan succé och hade inte planerat för någon turné. En sommarturné fick dock snabbt dras ihop och den fick besök av 157 000 åskådare.

2004 återförenades Gyllene Tider igen. Bandet gav ut det helt nya albumet Finn 5 fel! Jubileumsturnén “GT 25” blev Skandiaviens största turné genom tiderna med sammanlagt 492 252 åskådare. Den största spelningen ägde rum på Ullevi i Göteborg med närmare 60 000 besökare. Kvällstidningarna ägnade minst en sida varje dag åt turnén. Den bästa spelningen blev den på Idrottsparken i Norrköping, enligt bandet själva.

2005 släppte Per Gessle sitt femte soloalbum under artistnamnet Son of a Plumber, ett dubbelalbum på engelska där Gessle visade upp ännu en ny sida. Gessles syfte med albumet var att få återupptäcka sina musikaliska rötter; inramningen var betydligt mindre kommersiell än vad som är brukligt för Gessle. Han gjorde albumet mest för sin egen skull men både “Jo-Anna Says” och “Hey Mr DJ (Won’t You Play another Love Song?)” blev hits.

2006 spelade Roxette in ett par nya låtar till en stor och påkostad box som släpptes i samband med att gruppen firade tjugoårsjubileum samma år. Låten “One Wish” spelades flitigt i Europa under andra halvan av 2006 och nådde början av 2007 även vissa listframgångar i USA.

Den 13 juni 2007 gav Per Gessle ut sitt fjärde soloalbum på svenska (femte om engelska soloplattan medräknas), som hette En händig man. Singlar från albumet är titelspåret “En händig man” samt “Jag skulle vilja tänka en underbar tanke”. Albumsläppet följdes av en stor turné, Per Gessle, en händig man på turné 2007, på olika platser i Sverige. Turnén sågs officiellt av 128 000 personer.

Den 26 november 2008 släpptes Pers tredje soloalbum på engelska. Det nya albumet fick namnet Party Crasher. Den första singeln från albumet, “Silly Really”, släpptes den 29 oktober 2008. Våren 2009 hade Per Gessle en europaturné, “The Party Crasher Tour”, då han spelade på klubbar runt om i Europa.

Under en spelning i Amsterdam dök plötsligt Marie Fredriksson upp till publikens förvåning. När “The Party Crasher Tour” var över började Per skriva på Roxette’s nya album “Charm School” som släpptes i slutet av 2009. Detta ledde upp till Roxettes återförening och en världsturné som pågick under 1 tenderising meat,5 års tid med 100 shower som sträckte sig över alla sex kontinenter. Efter denna långa turné släppte Roxette albumet Traveling tillsammans med en dokumentär som filmats under turnén och berättar om hur Roxette återförenades som band reusable stainless steel water bottles. Dokumentären hade premiär på SVT den 27 december 2012.

Den 16 januari 2013 meddelades att bandet skulle återförenas, och åka runt och spela i Sverige kommande sommar. Albumet Dags att tänka på refrängen släpptes och låg #1 på albumlistan under många veckor. En turné och ett samlingsalbum Soldans på din grammofon släpptes i anslutning till turnén.

2014 släppte Per ett samlingsalbum kallat Per Gessle Archives. Samlingen innehåller 10 CD-skivor och en LP med både demos och utgivna klassiker. Boxen innehåller även två separata böcker med ett urval av Per Gessles sångtexter, samt intervjuer fokuserade på låtskrivandet.

Per Gessle är son till rörentreprenör Kurt Gessle (död 1978) och konstnären Elisabeth Gessle (född Larsson, död 2013). Han är sedan 21 augusti 1993 gift med Åsa Gessle (född Nordin). Tillsammans har de en son som heter Gabriel Titus. Har systern Gunilla och brodern Bengt (gick bort 2016 resp. 2014). Gessle är ägare till flera lönsamma företag, som har koppling till hans egen verksamhet som artist och kompositör. Dessutom är han delägare i Hotel Tylösand, som ligger utanför Halmstad.

Gessle har flertalet gånger offentligt tagit ställning mot piratkopiering (april 2005 och november 2008). Den 30 november 2005 rapporterade Aftonbladet att Gessle inför arbetet med Son of a Plumber fört över 9 000 låtar från sin skivsamling till iPods som han senare gav till sina musikerkollegor. Jurister på IFPI menade att brottet kunde ge böter och fängelse upp till två år. Gessle kallade dock tillbaka spelarna.

Per Gessle är känd för att skriva sånger med sommartema då han skriver på svenska.[källa behövs] Många texter handlar om Halmstad och småstadsliv i allmänhet goalie soccer gloves.[källa behövs] Ibland ställs vintern i kontrast till sommaren.[källa behövs]

Per Gessle fast med annat artistnamn.

Marçay (Vienne)

April 25th, 2017

Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?). Le bandeau {{ébauche}} peut être enlevé et l’article évalué comme étant au stade « Bon début » quand il comporte assez de renseignements encyclopédiques concernant la commune.
Si vous avez un doute, l’atelier de lecture du projet Communes de France est à votre disposition pour vous aider. Consultez également la page d’aide à la rédaction d’un article de commune.

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Vienne

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Vienne

Géolocalisation sur la carte : France

Géolocalisation sur la carte : France

Marçay est une commune du Centre-Ouest de la France, située dans le département de la Vienne en région Nouvelle-Aquitaine.

Le climat est océanique avec des étés tempérés.

D’une manière générale, le temps est assez sec et chaud pendant l’été, moyennement pluvieux en automne et en hiver avec des froids peu rigoureux.

La température moyenne est de 11 °C. Juillet est le mois le plus chaud (maximale absolue 40,8 °C en 1947). Janvier est le mois le plus froid (minimale absolue – 17,9°C en 1985). 9 °C à peine sépare les moyennes minimales des moyennes maximales (cette séparation est de 6 °C en hiver et de 11 °C en été). L’amplitude thermique est de 15 °C.

Le nom du village proviendrait de l’anthroponyme gallo-romain Marciacus avec le suffixe latin de propriété -acum devenu -ec puis -ay et signifiant domaine de .

Marçay accueille favorablement les avancées de la Révolution française. Elle plante ainsi son arbre de la liberté, symbole de la Révolution. Il devient le lieu de ralliement de toutes les fêtes et des principaux événements révolutionnaires, comme l’enrôlement des futurs soldats lors de la levée en masse.

La commune relève du tribunal d’instance de Poitiers, du tribunal de grande instance de Poitiers, de la cour d’appel de Poitiers, du tribunal pour enfants de Poitiers, du conseil de prud’hommes de Poitiers, du tribunal de commerce de Poitiers, du tribunal administratif de Poitiers et de la cour administrative d’appel de Bordeaux, du tribunal des pensions de Poitiers, du tribunal des affaires de la Sécurité sociale de la Vienne, de la cour d’assises de la Vienne.

Les réformes successives de La Poste ont conduit à la fermeture de nombreux bureaux de poste ou à leur transformation en simple relais. Toutefois, la commune a pu maintenir le sien.

L’évolution du nombre d’habitants est connue à travers les recensements de la population effectués dans la commune depuis 1793. À partir du milieu des années 2000, les populations légales des communes sont publiées annuellement. Le recensement repose désormais sur une collecte d’information annuelle, concernant successivement tous les territoires communaux au cours d’une période de cinq ans. Pour les communes de moins de 10 000 habitants

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, une enquête de recensement portant sur toute la population est réalisée tous les cinq ans, les populations légales des années intermédiaires étant quant à elles estimées par interpolation ou extrapolation. Pour la commune, le premier recensement exhaustif entrant dans le cadre du nouveau dispositif a été réalisé en 2006.

En 2014, la commune comptait 1 103 habitants, en augmentation de 27,07 % par rapport à 2009 (Vienne : 1,65 % , France hors Mayotte : 2,49 %)

En 2008, selon l’Insee 32 ounce glass water bottle, la densité de population de la commune était de 26 hab./km2 contre 61 hab./km2 pour le département, 68 hab./km2 pour la région Poitou-Charentes et 115&nbsp weston meat tenderizer;hab./km2 pour la France.

Selon la direction régionale de l’Alimentation, de l’Agriculture et de la Forêt de Poitou-Charentes, il n’y a plus que 23 exploitations agricoles en 2010 contre 28 en 2000.

Les surfaces agricoles utilisées ont diminué et sont passées de 2 036 hectares en 2000 à 1 910 hectares en 2010. 5 % sont destinées à la culture des céréales (blé tendre essentiellement mais aussi orges et maïs), 22&nbsp metal sports water bottles;% pour les oléagineux (colza et tournesol), 3 % pour les protéagineux, 7 % pour le fourrage et 5 % reste en herbes. En 2000, 2 hectares (2 en 2010) étaient consacrés à la vigne.

Cinq exploitations en 2010 comme en 2000 abritent un élevage de bovins (328 têtes en 2010 contre 370 en 2000). Ont disparu au cours de cette décennie, les élevages d’ovins (733 têtes sur onze fermes) et de volailles (1 112 têtes sur quatorze fermes en 2000). Cette évolution est conforme à la tendance globale du département de la Vienne. En effet, le troupeau d’ovins, exclusivement destiné à la production de viande, a diminué de 43,7 % de 1990 à 2007.

La commune accueille l’un des onze centres de compostage des déchets organiques du département. Le tonnage annuel est de 10 000 tonnes alors que pour l’ensemble des équipements du département, il est de 175 050 tonnes.

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

La basilique Saint Benoit Joseph Labre de Marçay est en chantier de restauration depuis l’année 2012 et cela pour quatre années consécutives; l’ouverture au public est prévue dès le printemps 2016. Accueil et visite guidée lors des journées du patrimoine.

Cervarix

April 24th, 2017

Cervarix is een vaccin tegen humaan papillomavirus (HPV) typen 16 en 18. Deze twee HPV-virussen zijn de oorzaak van ongeveer 70% van de gevallen van baarmoederhalskanker.

Een vaccinatie bestaat uit twee maal een injectie met entstof van de betreffende virustypen. Personen die gevaccineerd zijn blijken veel minder vatbaar voor een HPV-infectie. In studies is aangetoond dat de vaccinatie het ontstaan van hardnekkige infecties en voorstadia van baarmoederhalskanker kan voorkomen. Omdat slechts een klein deel van de besmette personen uiteindelijk kanker ontwikkelt – een proces waar jaren overheen gaan – is daarmee nog niet aangetoond dat de vaccinatie ook daadwerkelijk voor minder baarmoederhalskanker zorgt youth sports uniforms wholesale. Een persisterende besmetting die al opgelopen is in het verleden wordt door HPV-vaccinatie niet teruggedrongen puppy football jerseys. Het vaccin beschermt niet of beperkt tegen besmetting met HPV-typen die geen onderdeel van het vaccin uitmaken.

Cervarix wordt sinds 2007 op de markt gebracht door de farmaceutische firma GlaxoSmithKline en wordt in Nederland sinds 2009 aangeboden aan (pre)adolescente meisjes in het kader van het Rijksvaccinatieprogramma.

Jumiègesklosteret

April 24th, 2017

Koordinater:

Jumiègesklosteret (fransk Abbaye de Jumièges) var et benediktinerkloster som lå i den franske kommunen Jumièges i departementet Seine-Maritime i Normandie.

Klosteret ble opprettet i 654 på en gave av skoglendt land tilhørende den kongelige skattekammer presentert av kong Klodvig II og hans dronning Balthild til den frankiske adelsmannen Filibertus av Jumièges (ca. 608–684), som hadde vært sammen med Ouen og Wandrille ved merovingenes hoff under Dagobert I. Filibertus ble den første abbed, og dronning Balthilds sjenerøsitet ga «mange gaver og eiendommer fra det kongelige skattekammer».

Han ble senere tvunget til å forlate Jumièges, etter sigende på grunn av sjalusi fra sine fiender, og tilbrakte en tid i landflyktighet fra Neustria ved hoffet til biskop Ansoald av Poitiers. Deretter grunnla han klostre ved Pavilly, Montivilliers og Noirmoutier, hvor han døde en gang rundt 685.

Under den neste abbeden, sankt Achard, blomstret Jumiègesklosteret og hadde til sist bortimot tusen munker.

På 800-tallet ble klosteret plyndret og brent ned til grunnen av norrøne vikinger, men ble oppbygd i en enda større skala av Vilhelm Langsverd, hertug av Normandie (død 942). I 1040 begynte utbyggingen av klosteret

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, ofte beskrevet som den første betydelige romanske byggingen i nordlige Frankrike. Arbeidet ble ledet av Robert Champart, som også under den engelsk konge Edvard Bekjenneren, ble biskop av London, deretter erkebiskop av Canterbury for en kort tid. Robert Champarts rolle på begge sider av Den engelske kanal er et vitnemål om den normanniske innflytelsen i England før erobringen. Kong Edvard var via sin normanniske mor, barnebarn av hertug Rikard av Normandie og han ble selv oppfostret i Normandie.

En ny kirke ble reist i 1067 i nærværet av Vilhelm Erobreren, året etter at han hadde erobret England med sverd og blod, og således hadde gode grunn til å takke Gud. Under den gavemilde støtten fra hertugene av Normandie ble klosteret et stort læresenter for religion og undervisning. Dens skoler frambrakte blant mange lærde også den nasjonale historikeren William av Jumièges som frambrakte verket Gesta Normannorum Ducum. Det nådde toppen av sin berømmelse på slutten av 1000-tallet og ble sett på som en modell for alle andre klostre i Normandie og andre steder. Det var kjent blant annet for sin veldedighet overfor fattige og ble derfor populært kalt for «Jumièges l’Aumônier». Klosteret ble forstørret i 1256, fikk et gotisk kor mot slutten av 1200-tallet da det var på høyden av sin makt, og ble restaurert på nytt i 1573. Klosterets framgang led under den engelske invasjonen på 1400-tallet best baseball jerseys, men kom seg igjen og beholdt sin posisjon fram til det ble herjet av hugenotter og de påfølgende religionskrigene. I 1649, under abbediet til Francis III, ble klosteret overtatt av den benediktinske kongregasjon til sankt Maur (fransk: Congrégation de Saint-Maur) og dets tidligere storhet fikk fornyelse.

Den franske revolusjon på slutten av 1700-tallet nedla hele klosteret og etterlot de en gang så stolte bygningene i ruiner. Disse består av kirken som med sine vakre tvillingtårn og vestfasade og dessuten deler av søylegangene og biblioteket (bøkene ble fjernet til Rouen). I midten av det tidligere klosteret står fortsatt et 500 år gammelt barlindtre. Deler av klosteret ble kjøpt av lord Stuart de Rothesay som fraktet det over til England og bygget det inn i slottet Highcliffe Castle i nærheten av Bournemouth i Dorset

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Den franske Nobelprisvinneren i litteratur, romanforfatteren Roger Martin du Gard, benyttet sin doktoravhandling til en arkeologisk undersøkelse av ruinene.

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