Archive for November, 2016

Pamięć wirtualna

November 30th, 2016

Pamięć wirtualna – mechanizm zarządzania pamięcią komputera zapewniający procesowi wrażenie pracy w jednym, dużym, ciągłym obszarze pamięci operacyjnej podczas, gdy fizycznie może być ona pofragmentowana, nieciągła i częściowo przechowywana na urządzeniach pamięci masowej. Systemy korzystające z tej techniki ułatwiają tworzenie rozbudowanych aplikacji oraz poprawiają wykorzystanie fizycznej pamięci RAM w systemach wielozadaniowych. Często popełnianym błędem jest utożsamianie pamięci wirtualnej z wykorzystaniem pamięci masowej do rozszerzenia dostępnej pamięci operacyjnej. Rozszerzenie pamięci na dyski twarde w rzeczywistości jest tylko naturalną konsekwencją zastosowania techniki pamięci wirtualnej, lecz może być osiągnięte także na inne sposoby, np. nakładki lub całkowite przenoszenie pamięci procesów na dysk, gdy znajdują się w stanie uśpienia. Pamięć wirtualna działa na zasadzie przedefiniowania adresów pamięci (fizycznych) na adresy używane przez procesy (logiczne) tak, aby “oszukać” procesy i dać im wrażenie pracy w ciągłej przestrzeni adresowej. Pamięć wirtualna oznacza znacznie większą ilość pamięci RAM dla procesu niż fizycznie dostępna w systemie.

Obecnie wszystkie systemy operacyjne ogólnego przeznaczenia wykorzystują techniki pamięci wirtualnej dla procesów uruchamianych w ich obrębie. Wcześniejsze systemy takie, jak DOS, wydania Microsoft Windows z lat 80. oraz oprogramowanie komputerów mainframe z lat 60. nie pozwalały pracować w środowisku z pamięcią wirtualną. Godnymi odnotowania wyjątkami były komputery Atlas, B5000 oraz Apple Lisa.

Pamięć wirtualna wymaga wykonania dodatkowych nakładów pracy procesora przy odczycie i zapisie do pamięci, nakłady te występują tylko czasami i trwają dość długo, dlatego systemy czasu rzeczywistego lub szczególnego przeznaczenia, w których czas jest czynnikiem krytycznym i musi być przewidywalny, często nie korzystają lub ograniczają stosowanie mechanizmu pamięci wirtualnej stainless steel meat pounder.

Dyski twarde są około 100 razy wolniejsze od pamięci o dostępie swobodnym, przez co uruchamianie programów wymagających ilości pamięci większej niż fizycznie zainstalowana pamięć RAM powoduje wolne działanie komputera.

W pierwszych komputerach z lat 40. i 50., podobnie jak współcześnie, pamięć była zorganizowana w sposób dwupoziomowy, analogicznie do obecnego podziału na RAM i pamięć masową). Jednak z powodu braku mechanizmów pamięci wirtualnej, każdy program musiał we własnym zakresie zarządzać przenoszeniem danych z jednego poziomu do drugiego, co komplikowało programowanie. Głównym powodem wprowadzenia pamięci wirtualnej była zatem chęć maksymalnego uproszczenia i automatyzacji procesów związanych z zarządzaniem pamięcią, a nie jej rozszerzenie.

Wraz z pojawieniem się wielozadaniowości, wiodące systemy zaczęły udostępniać proste mechanizmy współdzielenia pamięci przez kilka uruchomionych procesów oparte na prostych technikach segmentacji. Dostępna dla procesu pamięć rozpoczynała się od adresu zerowego, a jej koniec wyznaczany był przez wartość rejestru granicznego. Aby uzyskać adres fizyczny, należało dodać do żądanego adresu logicznego wartość rejestru bazowego wyznaczającego przesunięcie. Takie rozwiązanie zostało m.in. zaimplementowane w komputerze PDP-10.

Pamięć wirtualna została zaprojektowana między rokiem 1959 a 1962 na Uniwersytecie Manchester dla komputera Atlas, który został ukończony w 1962 roku. Jednak niemiecki informatyk Fritz-Rudolf Güntsch, późniejszy twórca komputera Telefunken TR 440 twierdzi, że zaproponował tę technikę w roku 1957 w swojej pracy doktorskiej Logischer Entwurf eines digitalen Rechengerätes mit mehreren asynchron laufenden Trommeln und automatischem Schnellspeicherbetrieb.

W roku 1961 ukazał się B5000 firmy Burroughs, pierwszy komercyjny komputer z pamięcią wirtualną. Zamiast stronicowania, korzystał z mechanizmu segmentacji pamięci.

Stronicowanie pamięci, podobnie jak wiele innych nowych technologii w historii informatyki, wzbudzało początkowo wiele kontrowersji. Zanim zaczęło być stosowane na szerszą skalę, konieczne było stworzenie szeregu modeli, eksperymentów i teorii w celu rozwiązania nowo napotkanych problemów. Dynamiczne tłumaczenie adresów wymagało zastosowania specjalistycznych, drogich i ciężkich do zbudowania układów elektronicznych, a ponadto początkowo znacznie spowalniało dostęp do pamięci. Pojawiały się obawy, że nowe algorytmy zarządzania pamięcią dyskową będą dużo mniej efektywne od dotychczasowych, dostosowanych do potrzeb konkretnych aplikacji. Do roku 1969 debata została zakończona. Ekipa badawcza IBM pod przewodnictwem Davida Sayre jednoznacznie wykazała, że systemy z pamięcią wirtualną działają sprawniej, niż najlepsze systemy z własnymi mechanizmami.

Pamięć wirtualna została wprowadzona do architektury x86 wraz z pojawieniem się trybu chronionego w procesorze Intel 80286. Na początku realizowana była techniką segmentacji, która okazała się być nieefektywna przy większych segmentach. Procesor Intel 80286 wprowadził dodatkowo stronicowanie zbudowane na bazie już istniejącego systemu segmentacji.

Prawie wszystkie istniejące obecnie implementacje dzielą wirtualną przestrzeń adresową procesu na strony. Strona to obszar ciągłej pamięci o stałym rozmiarze (zazwyczaj 4kB). Systemy, gdzie zapotrzebowanie na wielkość wirtualnej przestrzeni adresowej jest większe lub dysponujące większymi zasobami pamięci operacyjnej mogą używać stron o większym rozmiarze. Rzeczywista pamięć operacyjna podzielona jest na ramki, których rozmiar odpowiada wielkości stron. System operacyjny według uznania może przydzielać ramkom strony pamięci lub pozostawiać je puste.

Każde odwołanie przez dany proces do wirtualnego adresu pamięci powoduje jego przetłumaczenie na adres fizyczny przy pomocy tablicy stron. Wpisy w tablicy stron przechowują namiary na ramkę, gdzie aktualnie znajduje się dana strona lub znacznik informujący, że dana strona znajduje się aktualnie na dysku twardym football uniform costume.

Systemy mogą utrzymywać tylko jedną tablicę stron – wtedy wszystkie procesy pracują we wspólnej wirtualnej przestrzeni adresowej, przy czym każdy z nich używa innej jej części. Odmiennym podejściem jest utrzymywanie osobnych tablic stron dla każdego procesu oraz dodatkowej na potrzeby samego systemu operacyjnego. W tym modelu każdy proces posiada swoją własną, niezależną przestrzeń adresową. Dwa identyczne adresy logiczne należące do różnych procesów tłumaczone są na inne adresy rzeczywiste, uniemożliwiając tym samym jednemu procesowi modyfikację danych innego.

Ta część systemu operacyjnego odpowiada za tworzenie i zarządzanie tablicami stron, a także obsługuje przerwanie braku strony generowane przez MMU. W przypadku jego wystąpienia zarządca poszukuje wskazanej strony na dysku twardym (pamięć wymiany), ładuje ją do aktualnie wolnej ramki, uaktualnia tablicę stron i nakazuje MMU ponowne przetłumaczenie adresu. Ładowanie brakujących stron z dysku jest powolnym procesem, dlatego jeśli system dysponuje wystarczającą liczbą ramek, dąży do minimalizacji wystąpień błędów braku strony.

Gdy ilość dostępnej pamięci operacyjnej jest na wyczerpaniu, zarządca może podjąć decyzję o przeniesieniu części stron z ramek na dysk. Do wyznaczenia niepotrzebnych stron stosowany jest algorytm LRU (Least Recently Used), w którym na dysk przenoszone są najdawniej używane strony jako te, których najprawdopodobniej proces będzie potrzebować najpóźniej.

Nie wszystkie strony pamięci mogą być przeniesione do pamięci wymiany. Wśród takich krytycznych stron możemy wyróżnić:

Pamięć wirtualna może być zrealizowana również w oparciu o techniki segmentowania. Wirtualna przestrzeń adresowa aplikacji podzielona jest na bloki zmiennej długości zwane segmentami. Adres logiczny składa się z numeru segmentu oraz przesunięcia w obrębie tego segmentu. Pamięć jest wciąż fizycznie dostępna za pomocą tzw. adresu absolutnego lub liniowego. Do jego otrzymania, procesor odczytuje deskryptor segmentu z tablicy segmentów. Zawiera on flagę informującą, czy dany segment znajduje się aktualnie w pamięci czy nie, adres początku segmentu oraz jego długość. Następnie sprawdza czy przesunięcie adresu mieści się w granicach segmentu. Jeśli segment nie znajduje się w pamięci, generowane jest przerwanie powiadamiające system operacyjny o konieczności jego załadowania. W trakcie wczytywania może okazać się niezbędne przeniesienie innych segmentów na dysk, aby zrobić miejsce dla nowego.

Technikę segmentowanej pamięci wirtualnej wspierał jako dodatkową opcję procesor Intel 80286 będący jednym z przodków wszystkich procesorów stosowanych we współczesnych komputerach PC, jednak nie była ona wykorzystywana w większości systemów operacyjnych.

Możliwe jest połączenie segmentacji pamięci ze stronicowaniem poprzez podzielenie każdego segmentu na strony best water bottle to buy. Systemy korzystające z tej techniki, np. Multics czy IBM System/38 pamięć wirtualna realizowana jest przez stronicowanie, zaś segmentacja wprowadza dodatkowy mechanizm ochrony. W procesorach IA-32 oraz Intel 80386 segmenty znajdują się w 32-bitowej liniowej stronicowanej przestrzeni adresowej: segmenty mogą być przenoszone z/do przestrzeni adresowej, zaś strony w obrębie przestrzeni adresowej mogą być przenoszone z/do pamięci operacyjnej. Korzystają z tego jednak tylko nieliczne systemy – najczęściej stosowane jest wyłącznie stronicowanie pamięci.

Różnica pomiędzy pamięcią stronicowaną a segmentowaną nie polega wyłącznie na podziale pamięci na porcje o stałym i zmiennym rozmiarze. W tego typu systemach segmentacja jest często widoczna dla procesów użytkownika, w przeciwieństwie do przezroczystych stron, które nie wymagają od nich żadnego dodatkowego zaangażowania.

Mianem szamotania określany jest stan procesu, w którym spędza on więcej czasu na oczekiwaniu na brakujące strony pamięci niż na faktycznym wykonywaniu obliczeń, co znacząco spowalnia jego działanie. Problem szamotania występuje we wszystkich implementacjach i objawia się przy zbyt dużym zapotrzebowaniu na pamięć ze strony procesów przy zbyt małej liczbie wolnych ramek. Problem może być częściowo rozwiązany przez poprawienie jakości programów, lecz na dłuższą metę jedynym skutecznym lekarstwem jest zainstalowanie większej ilości fizycznej pamięci operacyjnej.

Bernhard Kellermann

November 30th, 2016

Bernhard Kellermann et Otto Nagel (en) en 1950

Œuvres principales

Bernhard Kellermann, né le à Fürth en Allemagne et décédé le (à 72 ans) à Klein-Glienicke, près de Potsdam, est un écrivain allemand.

Bernhard Kellermann commence ses études en 1899 à l’Université Technique de Munich, où il étudie la littérature allemande et la peinture. À partir de 1904, il se fait remarquer comme auteur de romans. L’un de ses premiers récits, Yester und Li (Yester et Li) connaît un succès retentissant avec cent quatre-vingt-trois rééditions successives jusqu’en 1939. Son roman Ingeborg (1906) atteint également un nombre important de rééditions pour l’époque, cent trente-et-une jusqu’en 1939.

Dans les années qui précèdent la Première Guerre mondiale, il publie des romans qui s’inspirent de ses voyages aux États-Unis et au Japon. Son chef-d’œuvre, un roman d’anticipation intitulé Der Tunnel (Le Tunnel), paraît en 1913 avec un immense succès éditorial qui profite aussi bien à son auteur qu’à son éditeur, le S. Fischer Verlag. Le tirage global atteint le million d’exemplaires et le roman est traduit en vingt-cinq langues. Se détournant de l’orientation plus impressionniste et lyrique de ses débuts, Bernhard Kellermann priviliégie avec Le Tunnel une approche plus réaliste et sociocritique mêlée d’anticipation technique. Ce roman fut adapté au cinéma en 1933 par Curtis Bernhardt dans un film également intitulé Le Tunnel, une production franco-allemande avec Jean Gabin et Madeleine Renaud.

Pendant la Première Guerre mondiale, Bernhard Kellermann travaille comme correspondant de guerre pour le journal Berliner Tageblatt et publie plusieurs reportages. En 1920, il publie un nouveau roman, Der 9 still water in glass bottles. November (Le 9 novembre), qui traite de l’attitude des soldats et des officiers envers les populations civiles en temps de guerre. Ce récit sera quelques années plus tard à l’origine de la condamnation de Bernhard Kellermann par le régime nazi. À partir de 1922 suivent de nombreuses nouvelles. En 1926, Kellermann devient membre de l’Académie des Poètes de Prusse dont il est finalement exclu en 1933 par le régime hitlérien. Son roman Der 9 football t shirts uk. November est interdit par la censure et brûlé publiquement. Pourtant meat tenderizer cuber, Kellermann reste en Allemagne et n’oppose aucune résistance au régime, se contentant d’écrire des romans triviaux.

Après l’effondrement de la dictature nazie, Bernhard Kellermann fonde avec Johannes R. Becher le Kulturbund (Ligue culturelle). Il est ensuite élu député de la Chambre populaire de République démocratique allemande et président de la Gesellschaft für Deutsch-Sowjetische Freundschaft (Société pour l’Amitié germano-soviétique). Après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, son engagement en faveur du régime socialiste de RDA lui vaut d’être boycotté par les libraires ouest-allemands. Son nom sombre alors peu à peu dans l’oubli. Quelque temps avant sa mort, en 1951, il exhortait encore les écrivains des deux États allemands à la réconciliation.

Publication posthume :

Adaptation au cinéma :

Кольская ГМК (клуб по хоккею с мячом)

November 30th, 2016

«Ко́льская ГМК» — команда по хоккею с мячом из Мончегорска. В настоящее время выступает в Высшей лиге.

Клуб «Североникель» создан в 1957 году при металлургическом комбинате. В 2000 году был переименован в «Мончегорск — Североникель», с 2009 — «Кольская ГМК». Неоднократный победитель первенства Мурманской области. Клуб провел в высшей лиге СССР 7 сезонов (лучшее место 12-ое) В чемпионатах России в высшей лиге — 7 сезонов (лучшее место 8-е). Самая крупная победа была одержана 24 ноября 1993 года над королёвским «Вымпелом» (11:3). Самое крупное поражение команда понесла от нижегородского «Старта» (0:13).

В 2000-е годы команда неоднократно побеждала в турнирах первой лиги, а также занимала призовые места, предоставлявшие права на повышение в классе. Но правом на переход в класс сильнейших воспользовалась только однажды (после победы в 2002 году), в остальных случаях отказ был мотивирован отсутствием необходимого финансирования.

Летом 2012 года было принято решение о расформировании команды мастеров, выступавшей в первой группе высшей лиги. Клуб существует как детско-юношеская спортивная школа, принимающая участие во всероссийских детских и юношеских соревнованиях.

Победитель первенства России для команд высшей (первой) лиги: 2002, 2006, 2007, 2010.

Водник-2 (Архангельск) • Волга-СДЮСШОР (Ульяновск) • Вымпел (Королев) • Зоркий-2 (Красногорск) • Мурман (Мурманск) • Родина-2 (Киров) • Старт-2 (Нижний Новгород) • Строитель (Сыктывкар) • Черемшан (Димитровград)

Акжайык (Уральск) • Знамя-Удмуртия (Воткинск) • Локомотив (Оренбург) • Динамо (Самарская область) • Динамо-Казань-2 (Казань) • Динамо-Маяк (Краснотурьинск) • Никельщик (Верхний Уфалей) • СКА-Свердловск (Екатеринбург) • Универсал (Саратов)

Енисей-2 (Красноярск) • Кузбасс-2 (Кемерово) • Саяны-Хакасия (Абакан) • Сибсельмаш-2 (Новосибирск)

Восток (Арсеньев) • Надежда (Биробиджан) • СКА-Нефтяник-2 (Хабаровск) • Урожай (Смидович)

Skin Tags

November 30th, 2016

Most people have had some sort of embarrassing skin problem to deal with in their lifetime. You know the names of most of these common conditions — like acne, warts and blisters — and probably already have a plan of attack for when they pop up. But there’s at least one that many people have trouble identifying, let alone treating: acrochordons.
Commonly referred to as skin tags, acrochordons are small outgrowths of the skin that affect about 46 percent of the general population [source: Schwartz]. Fortunately, skin tags are relatively harmless and quite common.
Skin tags form just below the skin’s surface. They usually consist of fat, nerve cells, fibers and ducts, all covered by skin [source: Crosta]. What is visible to the naked eye is a raised surface or small bump. Over time, skin tags can become a small mass connected by a stalk of skin, which wiggles as you move [source: Harvard Health Publications] Before you say “Ew!” know that skin tags are incredibly small — usually only 0.08 to 0.19 inches (2 to 5 millimeters) [source: Schwartz].
Skin tags usually show up in areas of the body where there are skin folds, like armpits or eyelids. They also occur on more remote areas such as on the neckline, below the breasts or in the groin area [source: Crosta]. They occur equally in men and women but more often in adults over 60. Some research has shown that skin tags may be genetic, but that hasn’t been definitively proven yet [source: Harvard Health Publications].
Once skin tags form, they do not go away on their own. Although they tend to be small

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, they can grow to the size of large grapes. But the good news is skin tags are not directly associated with a major medical condition and are not life threatening, though their appearance may alarm you if you’ve never had one [source: Alai]. Learning a little bit about why people get skin tags and how to treat them may help you reduce the likelihood of their occurrence or reoccurrence.
Read on find out what causes skin tags.

SDM Institute for Management Development

November 30th, 2016

The SDM Institute for Management Development (SDMIMD) campus is picturesque in more ways than one. It is one of the premier B-schools of the country, located at the foot of Chamundi Hills at the ‘Palace City’ Mysore. The glorious view of the historically important Chamundi Hills, the vast expanse of the meticulously designed structure and the award-winning garden all add to this.

The Institute itself is committed to the Dharmasthala principle of giving and righteousness. Spiritual awareness through yoga and inculcation of ethics in the program add to the creation of a whole individual, who while being highly competent academically, also upholds high values and principles. The hallmark of the Institute’s PGDM program is in its emphasis on academic rigour all around, and on the course, curriculum and pedagogy following this principle consistently.

SDMIMD, being aware of the need to meet the expectations of the corporate world, hold several meetings with corporate leaders in designing the structure and contents of various courses and projects. Emphasis is given in equal measure to theoretical proficiency and practical insights.

The institute is promoted by the Shree Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Educational Trust, which has rich experience in managing educational institutes of repute for over 42 years. It is one of the foremost institutions of 40 educational establishments promoted by Shree Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Educational Trust, in the realm of Medical, Engineering japanese glass water bottle, Dental, Law and Management Sciences.

Academic

Campus

SDMIMD was established in 1993 and promoted by the Shree Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Educational (SDME) Trust, which has rich experience in managing educational institutes of repute for over 42 years. The Institute had a campus on Vinoba Road, Mysore and moved to the new campus in 2005 water bottle covers, inaugurated by Mr. N. R. Narayana Murthy, Chief Mentor, infosys technologies

Post Graduate Diploma in Management (PGDM)

The two-year, residential PGDM Programme, approved by the AICTE, Ministry of HRD, Government of India, has been recognized as being highly contemporary with a state-of – the art pedagogical practices. The course is compiled from current industry practices and probing business case studies. The program has the MBA equivalence from Association of Indian Universities (AIU). The program is accredited by the National Board of Accreditation (NBA) for a period of 3 Years with effect from December 13, 2011.

Certificate Program in Business Management (CPBM)

The Certificate Program in Business Management (CPBM) is intended to be an abridged Executive version of the Post Graduate Diploma in Business Management (PGDM) offered by SDMIMD. This program is designed by the SDMIMD faculty, specifically to cater to the requirements of working executives. The pedagogy is interactive and application oriented to encourage participatory learning.

Management Development Program (MDP)

The Institute conducts Management Development Programs (MDP) for the corporate executives, academicians and consultants which are aimed to update with new developments in various fields – both in respect of their proven areas of expertise and some others as well. These programs are uniquely designed training programmes which equip participants with up-to-date skills and techniques in various areas.

SDMIMD has collaborated with the

for Study Abroad Programs every year. 4 students are sent to Texas A & M University’s MAYS Business School and 3 students are sent to Shanghai University of MBA i.e. SHUMBA to study in the Global Management Program. These study abroad programs enable students to understand each other’s countries, business practices and culture. This program is for a duration of one semester. This gives students an edge when it comes to international opportunities.

International Study Tour – The institute has the International Study Tour inbuilt into its PGDM course curriculum. This tour is structured to introduce the international scenario pertaining to culture, economics and the trends. Select students are taken to a University in a foreign nation to gain exposure to their environment for a few days.

Library – SDMIMD Library is known as the Information Resource Centre which supports teaching, learning and research and which is the heart of the academic centre with an aim to provide ‘Anytime, Anywhere Access’ to information and knowledge.

Computer Centre – Efficient managers are those who can use technology to mould their businesses successfully. With continuously upgraded hardware, software and communication facilities, SDM-IMD is taking the face of management into a new era.

Auditorium – The large, acoustically sound auditorium is a showcase of discourses, seminars, films, presentations and theatre for management and general education. It seats 300 and is a constant witness to cultural, educational and recreational feats for and by the students.

Amphitheatre – The ambience and the structure of the amphitheatre is breath-taking. Over 500 people can watch the cultural extravaganzas produced by students and others. The amphitheatre is also a meeting place where students can relax.

Hostel – The SDMIMD hostel is indeed a home away from home. Fully furnished single rooms, lounge/study area, recreational facilities, and a common dining area create a mini world of its own. The facilities in the hostel include broadband internet access, housekeeping, dry cleaning and laundry services. Mess – The SDMIMD Mess is student-managed. The Students decide on the menu, fixed for a week. It caters to around three hundred people, and mixes a variety of North and South Indian vegetarian cuisine. SDM IMD Mess makes the painful process of going from home-made food to the hostel mess very easy.

Yoga and Gym – Healthy people make organizations healthy. In the modern global environment, managers need to play multiple roles, which call for multiple skills. To display multiple skills, one has to have good physical, mental, social, emotional and spiritual health. Thus, Health precedes everything else. Keeping this in view, SDM IMD has introduced Wellness Management as a 2 Credit (90 hours) Course. A well designed and equipped “Wellness Center” offers Yoga, Aerobics, Hi Tech Gym, Table Tennis and Shuttle Badminton. At the outdoor, the campus offers Basket Ball and Volley Ball courts.

Suvidha – Suvidha is an equity-funded departmental store conceived and run by students as a co-operative venture with the objective of providing daily necessities to students at the lowest cost. It provides an opportunity for students to apply their knowledge to professional, practical management of a micro-institution.

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FDP-Bundesparteitag 1965

November 30th, 2016

Den Bundesparteitag der FDP 1965 hielt die FDP vom 21. bis 23. März 1965 im Zoo-Gesellschaftshaus in Frankfurt am Main ab. Es handelte sich um den 16. ordentlichen Bundesparteitag der FDP in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.

Der Parteitag fand im Vorfeld der Bundestagswahl im Oktober 1965 statt. Hildegard Hamm-Brücher legte eine Analyse der bildungspolitischen Situation in Westdeutschland vor. Sie beklagte die Mängel des Bildungssystems und einen „Rückstand gegenüber der DDR und den westlichen Industriestaaten“. Die Reformvorschläge, die vor allem auf einen Ausbau der Bildungseinrichtungen hinausliefen, wurden nach nur wenigen Jahren von den anderen Parteien in ihre Programme übernommen.

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0373

November 30th, 2016

0373 è il prefisso telefonico del distretto di Crema, appartenente al compartimento di Milano.

Il distretto comprende la parte nord-occidentale della provincia di Cremona. Confina con i distretti di Treviglio (0363) a nord, di Soresina (0374) a est, di Codogno (0377) e di Lodi (0371) a sud e di Milano (02) a ovest.

Il distretto di Crema comprende 38 comuni compresi in 1 area locale, nata dall’aggregazione dei 2 preesistenti settori di Crema e Pandino: Agnadello, Bagnolo Cremasco, Camisano, Campagnola Cremasca, Capergnanica, Capralba, Casale Cremasco-Vidolasco, Casaletto Ceredano, Casaletto di Sopra, Casaletto Vaprio, Castel Gabbiano, Chieve, Credera Rubbiano best way to tenderize steak, Crema, Cremosano, Dovera, Izano, Madignano, Monte Cremasco, Montodine, Moscazzano, Offanengo, Palazzo Pignano, Pandino, Pianengo, Pieranica sale jerseys, Quintano, Ricengo, Ripalta Arpina, Ripalta Cremasca, Ripalta Guerina, Romanengo, Salvirola, Sergnano, Spino d’Adda, Torlino Vimercati, Trescore Cremasco e Vaiano Cremasco .

Tom der Nachtwächter

November 30th, 2016

Tom der Nachtwächter ist ein US-amerikanischer Zeichentrick-Kurzfilm von William Hanna und Joseph Barbera aus dem Jahr 1945 how to tenderize a steak quickly.

Bulldogge Spike versucht vergeblich zu schlafen, jagt doch im selben Zimmer Kater Tom die Maus Jerry. Spike droht Tom ihn bei lebendigen Leib zu häuten, sollte er weiterhin Lärm machen. Jerry nutzt seine Chance und wirft nun Glühlampen zu Boden, die Tom kurz vor dem Aufprall fangen kann, kippt die Wanduhr, die umzustürzen droht und hält Tom auf Trab. Der wiederum flößt Spike K.-o.-Tropfen ein. Jerrys Lärm bleibt nun ohne Folgen und die Jagd beginnt erneut.

Jerry versucht vergeblich, Spike zu wecken und platziert am Ende eine überdimensionale Dynamitstange unter ihm. Während Tom diese unter dem schlafenden Hund hervorziehen will, erwacht Spike. Tom überlegt es sich anders, um den Hund nicht zu reizen, und das Dynamit explodiert unter ihm. Halb gehäutet macht Spike nun Jagd auf Tom. Am Ende muss Tom mit zahlreichen Verbänden und einem blauen Auge ein Schaukelbett wiegen, in dem nicht nur Spike, sondern auch Jerry liegt.

Tom der Nachtwächter kam am 22 best place to buy football jerseys. Dezember 1945 als Teil der MGM-Trickfilmserie Tom und Jerry in die Kinos.

Spike wird im Film von Billy Bletcher gesprochen, während William Hanna Tom seine Stimme leiht.

Tom der Nachtwächter gewann 1946 den Oscar in der Kategorie „Bester animierter Kurzfilm“.

Partito Progressista Serbo

November 30th, 2016

Il Partito Progressista Serbo (Српска напредна странка/Srpska napredna stranka, SNS) è attualmente il maggiore partito politico serbo.

SNS è un partito nazional-conservatore nato nell’ottobre 2008 ad opera di Tomislav Nikolić, quale scissione del Partito Radicale Serbo (SRS).

Dal 2003, anno dell’estradizione del leader del Partito Radicale Vojislav Šešelj al Tribunale dell’Aja per crimini di guerra, Nikolić come vicepresidente del partito, aveva assunto la leadership di SRS wholesale socks nyc, diventando candidato alle elezioni presidenziali del 2004 e del 2008, anche se fu sconfitto entrambe le volte dal candidato del Partito Democratico Boris Tadić.

A settembre 2008, Nikolić già critico sulla linea che il partito doveva assumere rispetto all’entrata nell’UE, si scontrò col presidente Šešelj e si dimise da vicepresidente di SRS. Il 21 ottobre 2008 fondò il suo nuovo partito di cui venne eletto presidente, mentre il segretario generale di SRS Aleksandar Vučić (che aveva deciso di seguire Nikolić) fu nominato vicepresidente.

SNS ha formato nel 2011 una coalizione con Nuova Serbia, Movimento della Forza di Serbia, Movimento dei Socialisti e altri denominata “Attiviamo la Serbia – Tomislav Nikolić” e ha annunciato che i partiti si presentano in una lista unitaria alle elezioni parlamentari nel 2012.

Alle elezioni parlamentari la coalizione progressista arriva al primo posto con il 24,04% e 73 seggi di cui 55 vanno a SNS che così ottiene la maggioranza relativa. Il risultato più importante per il partito si verifica alle elezioni presidenziali, dove il candidato progressista Tomislav Nikolić arriva secondo al primo turno ottenendo il 25,0% mentre il suo rivale Boris Tadić ottiene il 25,3%. Il 20 maggio al ballottaggio però Nikolić riesce a ottenere quasi il 50% e a battere Tadić fermo al 47% e diventando così per la prima volta capo di stato del suo paese. A causa della sua elezione Nikolić si è dimesso da presidente del partito.

Dopo l’elezione di Nikolić, SNS inizia le trattative per la formazione del governo. Il 28 giugno SNS insieme al Partito Socialista di Serbia, alle Regioni Unite di Serbia ed altri partiti minori, annuncia la formazione della nuova maggioranza di governo che ha eletto premier il leader dei socialisti Ivica Dačić. Il 27 luglio 2012 il nuovo governo riceve l’appoggio del Parlamento. SNS ha espresso 8 ministri su 16 e il vicepremier del governo e ha anche ottenuto la presidenza del Parlamento.

Il 29 settembre 2012 SNS ha tenuto il suo secondo congresso dove Aleksandar Vučić (già vicepresidente di SNS) è stato eletto presidente del partito mentre Jorgovanka Tabaković come suo vice.

Nel gennaio 2014 i progressisti raggiungono un accordo col Partito Socialista ponendo fine al governo di Ivica Dačić e inducendo il presidente Nikolić a indire elezioni anticipate. SNS decide di creare una nuova lista elettorale chiamata “Aleksandar Vučić – Il futuro in cui crediamo” insieme a Partito Socialdemocratico di Serbia, Nuova Serbia, Movimento del Rinnovamento Serbo, Movimento dei Socialisti e altri. Le elezioni si tengono il 16 marzo e segnano la vittoria della lista progressista che ha ottenuto il 48,35% dei voti conquistando la maggioranza assoluta dei seggi (158 su 250, di cui 131 al SNS). Aleksandar Vučić ha pertanto ottenuto l’incarico di formare il nuovo governo.

Il 27 aprile 2014 dopo un accordo con SPS e con l’Alleanza degli Ungheresi di Voivodina, Vučić è diventato premier e SNS ha ottenuto anche la vicepremiership e 6 ministeri.

In occasione delle concomitanti elezioni locali Vučić decide di andare a nuove elezioni parlamentari per confermare il percorso europeo del paese. SNS ha formato una lista elettorale denominata “Aleksandar Vučić – La Serbia sta vincendo” includendo Partito Socialdemocratico di Serbia, Partito dei Pensionati Uniti di Serbia, Nuova Serbia, Movimento del Rinnovamento Serbo, Movimento dei Socialisti e altri. La coalizione ottiene il 48,25% alle elezioni del 24 aprile confermando la maggioranza assoluta dei seggi (anche se ridotta 131 su 250, di cui 93 al SNS).

L’11 agosto 2016 viene inaugurato il secondo governo Vučić.

SNS ha posizioni molto più moderate rispetto a SRS e si colloca tra i partiti della destra conservatrice europea. A livello internazionale SNS ha forti relazioni con Russia Unita reusable 2 liter bottles, partito del presidente russo Vladimir Putin e con il Partito della Libertà Austriaco, nell’ottica delle forze di destra europee. SNS è contrario all’indipendenza del Kosovo, sostenitore di riforme in senso centralista dello stato serbo e favorevole al dialogo con l’UE. All’interno dell’Assemblea parlamentare del Consiglio d’Europa i deputati SNS siedono nel gruppo del Partito Popolare Europeo.

*Lista “Attiviamo la Serbia – Tomislav Nikolić
**Lista “Aleksandar Vučić – Il futuro in cui crediamo
***Lista “Aleksandar Vučić – La Serbia sta vincendo

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Billboard

November 29th, 2016

A billboard (also called a hoarding in the UK and many other parts of the world) is a large outdoor advertising structure (a billing board), typically found in high-traffic areas such as alongside busy roads. Billboards present large advertisements to passing pedestrians and drivers. Typically showing large, ostensibly witty slogans, and distinctive visuals, billboards are highly visible in the top designated market areas.

The largest standard-size billboards, known as Bulletins, are located primarily on major highways, expressways or principal arterials, and command high-density consumer exposure (mostly to vehicular traffic). Bulletins afford greatest visibility due not only to their size, but because they allow creative “customizing” through extensions and embellishments.

Posters are the other common form of billboard advertising, located mostly along primary and secondary arterial roads. Posters are a smaller format than bulletins and are viewed principally by residents and commuter traffic, with some pedestrian exposure.

Billboard advertisements are designed to catch a person’s attention and create a memorable impression very quickly, leaving the reader thinking about the advertisement after they have driven past it. They have to be readable in a very short time because they are usually read while being passed at high speeds. Thus there are usually only a few words, in large print, and a humorous or arresting image in brilliant color.

Some billboard designs spill outside the actual space given to them by the billboard, with parts of figures hanging off the billboard edges or jutting out of the billboard in three dimensions. An example in the United States around the turn of the 21st century were the Chick-fil-A billboards (a chicken sandwich fast food chain), which had three-dimensional cow figures in the act of painting the billboards with misspelled anti-beef slogans such as “frendz don’t let frendz eat beef.”

The first “scented billboard,” an outdoor sign emitting the odors of black pepper and charcoal to suggest a grilled steak, was erected on NC 150 near Mooresville, North Carolina by the Bloom grocery chain. The sign depicted a giant cube of beef being pierced by a large fork that extended to the ground. The scents were emitted between 7–10 a.m. and 4– to 7 pm from 28 May 2010 through 18 June 2010.

Almost all these billboards were painted in large studios. The image was projected on the series of paper panels that made up the billboard. Line drawings were done, then traced with a pounce wheel that created perforated lines. The patterns were then “pounced” onto the board with a chalk filled pounce bag, marking the outlines of the figures or objects. Using oil paints, artists would use large brushes to paint the image. Once the panels were installed using hydraulic cranes, artists would go up on the installed billboard and touch up the edges between panels. These large, painted billboards were especially popular in Los Angeles where historic firms such as Foster & Kleiser and Pacific Outdoor Advertising dominated the industry. Eventually, these painted billboards gave way to graphic reproduction, but hand-painted billboards are still in use in some areas where only a single board or two is required. The “Sunset Strip” in Los Angeles is one area where hand-painted billboards can still be found, usually to advertise upcoming films or albums.

A digital billboard is a billboard that is created from computer programs and software. Digital billboards can be designed to display running text, display several different displays from the same company, and even provide several companies a certain time slot during the day. The constantly changing texts ensure maximum impact and wide exposure to target audiences.

In May 2014, Beck’s Beer released a billboard poster that plays audio. Conductive ink linked to sensors and speakers means that when touched, the poster begins to play music wholesale underwear. The beer company claim it to be ‘the world’s first playable music poster’. However, Agency Republic released the Spotify Powered Interactive Music Poster in April 2012. Creative agency, Grey London collaborated on a similarly interactive poster using touch sensitive inks in April 2014.

Outdoor Advertising, such as a mobile billboard, is effective because it is difficult to ignore. According to a UK national survey, it is also memorable. Capitol Communications Group found that 81.7% of those polled recalled images they saw on a moving multi-image sign.[citation needed] This is compared to a 19% retention rate for static signs.

Unlike a typical billboard, mobile billboards are able to go directly to their target audience. They can be placed wherever there is heavy foot traffic due to an event – including convention centers, train stations, airports and sports arenas. They can repeat routes, ensuring that an advertiser’s message is not only noticed, but that information is retained through repetition.

Some billboards are not used only for advertising, but can be multi-purpose. So, an advertising sign can integrate its main purpose with telecommunications antenna and/or public lighting support. Usually the structure has a steel pole with a coupling flange on the above-fitted advertising billboard structure that can contain telecommunications antennas. The lighting power wiring and any antennas are placed inside the structure.

Common along highways are free-standing two-sided as well as three-sided billboards. Other types of billboards include the billboard bicycle attached to the back of a bicycle or the mobile billboard, a special advertising trailer to hoist big banners. Mechanical billboards display three different messages, with three advertisements attached to a conveyor inside the billboard. There are also three-dimensional billboards, such as the ones at Piccadilly Circus, London.

Some of the most prominent billboards are alongside highways; since passing drivers typically have little to occupy their attention, the impact of the billboard is greater. Billboards are often drivers’ primary method of finding lodging, food, and fuel on unfamiliar highways. There were approximately 450,000 billboards on US highways in 1991.[citation needed] Somewhere between 5,000 and 15,000 are erected each year. Current numbers are put at 368,263, according to the OAAA (outdoor Advertising Association of America). In Europe billboards are a major component and source of income in urban street furniture concepts.

An interesting use of billboards unique to highways was the Burma-Shave advertisements between 1925 and 1963, which had 4- or 5-part messages on multiple signs, keeping the reader hooked by the promise of a punchline at the end. This example is in the National Museum of American History at the Smithsonian Institution:

These sort of multi-sign advertisements are no longer common, though they are not extinct. One example, advertising for the NCAA, depicts a basketball player aiming a shot on one billboard; on the next one, 90 yards (82 meters) away, is the basket. Another example is the numerous billboards advertising the roadside attraction South of the Border near Dillon, SC, along I-95 in many states.

Many cities have high densities of billboards, especially where there is dense pedestrian traffic—Times Square in New York City is a good example. Because of the lack of space in cities, these billboards are placed on the sides of buildings and sometimes are free-standing billboards hanging above buildings. Billboards on the sides of buildings create different stylistic opportunities, with artwork that incorporates features of the building into the design, such as using windows as eyes, or for gigantic frescoes that adorn the entire building.

Many groups such as Scenic America have complained that billboards on highways cause excessive clearing of trees and intrude on the surrounding landscape, with billboards’ bright colors, lights and large fonts making it difficult to focus on anything else, making them a form of visual pollution wholesale socks china. Other groups believe that billboards and advertising contribute negatively to the mental climate of a culture by promoting products as providing feelings of completeness, wellness and popularity to motivate purchase. One focal point for this sentiment would be the magazine AdBusters, which will often showcase politically motivated billboard and other advertising vandalism, called culture jamming.

In 2000, rooftops in Athens had grown so thick with billboards that it was difficult to see its famous architecture. In preparation for the 2004 Summer Olympics, the city embarked on a successful four-year project demolishing the majority of rooftop billboards to beautify the city, overcoming resistance from advertisers and building owners. Most of these billboards were illegal, but had been ignored until then.

In 2007, São Paulo, Brazil instituted a billboard ban because there were no viable regulations of the billboard industry. Today, São Paulo, Brazil, is working with outdoor companies to rebuild the outdoor infrastructure in a way that will reflect the vibrant business climate of the city while adopting good regulations to control growth.

Individuals and groups have vandalized billboards worldwide.

In the US, many cities enacted laws banning billboards as early as 1909 (California Supreme Court, Varney & Green vs. Williams) but the First Amendment has made this difficult. A San Diego law championed by Pete Wilson in 1971 cited traffic safety and driver distraction as the reason for the billboard ban, but was narrowly overturned by the Supreme Court in 1981, in part because it banned non-commercial as well as commercial billboards.

Billboards have long been accused of distracting drivers and causing accidents. This may not necessarily be true, as a study by researchers at the University of North Carolina showed. Released in June 2001, the researchers prepared a thorough report on driver distraction for the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. This study said: “The search appears to suggest that some items—such as CB radios, billboards, and temperature controls—are not significant distractions.”

Traffic safety experts have studied the relationship between outdoor advertising and traffic accidents since the 1950s, finding no authoritative or scientific evidence that billboards are linked to traffic accidents. However, many of these studies were funded by the Outdoor Advertising Association of America, which has led to accusations of bias. The methodology used in certain studies is also questionable.

The US Department of Transportation, State Department of Transportation and property/casualty insurance companies statistics on fatal accidents indicate no correlation between billboards and traffic accidents. A broad sampling of law enforcement agencies across the country found no evidence to suggest that motor vehicle accidents were caused by billboards. Property and casualty insurance companies have conducted detailed studies of traffic accident records and conclude no correlation between billboards and traffic accidents.

However, studies based on correlations between traffic accidents and billboards face the problem of under-reporting: drivers are unwilling to admit responsibility for a crash, so will not admit to being distracted at a crucial moment. Even given this limitation, some studies have found higher crash rates in the vicinity of advertising using variable message signs or electronic billboards.

It is possible that advertising signs in rural areas reduce driver boredom, which many believe is a contribution to highway safety. On the other hand, drivers may fixate on a billboard which unexpectedly appears in a monotonous landscape, and drive straight into it (a phenomenon known as “highway hypnosis”).

Surveys of road users show that the lighting provided by billboards provide security and visibility to many motorists. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) went on record (Federal Register, 5 March 1999) stating that the agency agrees that appropriately regulated billboards do not compromise highway safety. It should be noted that this statement was made before the release of the FHWA report Research review of potential safety effects of electronic billboards on driver attention and distraction in 2001. What level of regulation is appropriate for billboards in different areas is still under discussion by road safety experts around the world.

In 1964, the negative impact of the over-proliferation of signage was abundantly evident in Houston, Texas, and it motivated Lady Bird Johnson to ask her husband to create a law. At the same time the outdoor advertising industry was becoming aware that excessive signs, some literally blocking another, was bad for business.

In 1965, the Highway Beautification Act was signed into law. The act applied only to “Federal Aid Primary” and “Defense” highways and limited billboards to commercial and industrial zones created by states and municipalities. It required each state to set standards based on “customary use” for the size, lighting and spacing of billboards, and prohibited city and state governments from removing billboards without paying compensation to the owner. The act requires states to maintain “effective control” of billboards or lose 10% of their federal highway dollars.

The act also required the screening of junk yards adjacent to regulated highways.

Around major holidays, volunteer groups erected highway signs offering free coffee at rest stops. These were specifically exempted in the act.

Currently, four states—Vermont, Alaska, Hawaii, and Maine—have prohibited billboards. Vermont’s law went into effect in 1968, Hawaii’s law went into effect in 1927, Maine’s law went into effect in 1977, and Alaska’s law went into effect upon its achievement of statehood in 1959.

In the UK, billboards are controlled as adverts as part of the planning system. To display an illegal advert (that is, without planning permission) is a criminal offence with a fine of up to £2500 per offence (per poster). All of the large UK outdoor advertisers such as CBS Outdoor, JCDecaux, Clear Channel, Titan and Primesight have numerous convictions for such crimes.

In São Paulo, a city of eleven million in Brazil, Billboards and advertising on vehicles have been banned since January 2007. It also restricted the dimensions of advertising on shop fronts.

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, billboards are restricted to 300m away from roadways, the government also retains the right to remove any billboard it deems an unsafe distraction.

In Toronto, a city of over 2 million in Canada, a municipal tax on billboards was implemented in April 2010. A portion of the tax will help fund arts programs in the city.

Many signs advertise local restaurants and shops in the coming miles, and are crucial to drawing business in small towns. One example is Wall Drug, which in 1936 erected billboards advertising “free ice water”. The town of Wall, South Dakota, was essentially built around the many thousands of customers per day those billboards brought in (20,000 in 1981). Some signs were placed at great distances, with slogans such as “only 827 miles to Wall Drug, with FREE ice water.” In some areas the signs were so dense that one almost immediately followed the last. This situation changed after the Highway Beautification Act was passed; the proliferation of Wall Drug billboards is sometimes cited as one of the reasons the bill was passed. After the passage of the act, other states (such as Oregon) embarked on highway beautification efforts.

Billboard advertising in underground stations, especially, is perhaps a place where they find a greater degree of acceptability and may assist in maintaining a neat, vibrant and safe atmosphere if not too distracting. Museum Station, Sydney has mounted restored 1940s billboard panels along the platforms that are in keeping with its heritage listing.

Billboards are also used to advertise national or global brands, particularly in more densely populated urban areas. According to the Outdoor Advertising Association of America, the top three companies advertising on billboards in 2009 were McDonald’s, Verizon Long Distance and Pepsi. A large number of wireless phone companies, movie companies, car manufacturers and banks are high on the list as well.

Prior to 1999, billboards were a major venue of cigarette advertising; 10% of Michigan billboards advertise alcohol and tobacco, according to the Detroit Free Press. This is particularly true in countries where tobacco advertisements are not allowed in other media. For example, in the US, tobacco advertising was banned on radio and television in 1971, leaving billboards and magazines as some of the last places tobacco could be advertised. Billboards made the news in America when, in the tobacco settlement of 1999, all cigarette billboards were replaced with anti-smoking messages.[citation needed] In a parody of the Marlboro Man, some billboards depicted cowboys riding on ranches with slogans like “Bob, I miss my lung.”

Likely the best-known of the tobacco advertising boards were those for “Mail Pouch” chewing tobacco in the United States during the first half of the 20th century (pictured at left). The company agreed to paint two or three sides of a farmer’s barn any color he chose in exchange for painting their advertisement on the one or two sides of the structure facing the road. The company has long since abandoned this form of advertising, and none of these advertisements have been painted in many years, but some remain visible on rural highways.

Not all billboards are used for advertising products and services—non-profit groups and government agencies use them to communicate with the public. In 1999 an anonymous person created the God Speaks billboard campaign in Florida “to get people thinking about God”, with witty statements signed by God. “Don’t make me come down there”, “We need to talk” and “Tell the children that I love them” were parts of the campaign, which was picked up by the Outdoor Advertising Association of America and continues today on billboards across the country.

South of Olympia, Washington is the privately owned Uncle Sam billboard. It features conservative, sometimes inflammatory messages, changed on a regular basis. Chehalis farmer Al Hamilton first started the board during the Johnson era, when the government was trying to make him remove his billboards along Interstate 5. He had erected the signs after he lost a legal battle to prevent the building of the freeway across his land. Numerous legal and illegal attempts to remove the Uncle Sam billboard have failed, and it is now in its third location. One message, attacking a nearby liberal arts college, was photographed, made into a postcard and is sold in the College Bookstore.

The Traffic Audit Bureau for Media Measurement Inc wholesale softball socks. (TAB) was established in 1933 as a non-profit organization whose historical mission has been to audit the circulation of out-of-home media in the United States. TAB’s role has expanded to lead and/or support other major out of home industry research initiatives. Governed by a tripartite board composed of advertisers, agencies and media companies, the TAB acts as an independent auditor for traffic circulation in accordance to guidelines established by its Board of Directors.

Similarly, in Canada, the Canadian Outdoor Measurement Bureau (COMB) was formed in 1965 as a non-profit organization independently operated by representatives composed of advertisers, advertising agencies and members of the Canadian out-of-home advertising industry. COMB is charged with the verification of traffic circulation for the benefit of the industry and its users.

Early billboards were basically large posters on the sides of buildings, with limited but still appreciable commercial value. As roads and highways multiplied, the billboard business thrived.

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