Archive for May, 2016

Forêt d’Arc-en-Barrois

May 31st, 2016

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Haute-Marne
Géolocalisation sur la carte : France
La forêt d’Arc-en-Barrois est une forêt domaniale de Haute-Marne s’étendant autour d’Arc-en-Barrois (Barrois champenois). Comptant parmi les forêt les plus étendues de France (15 210 hectares), elle est principalement composée de chênes, de charmes et de hêtres.
La forêt d’Arc-en-Barrois est considérée comme le plus grand domaine de chasse au gros gibier de France (sangliers, cerfs et chevreuils).

Au XIXe siècle, la forêt, qui appartenait à la maison royale depuis 1696, revint à la duchesse d’Orléans, veuve de Philippe-Égalité. Elle resta dans cette famille jusqu’à sa vente à l’État en 1974. Durant ces cent soixante ans, les équipages du duc de Penthièvre, du duc du Chartres, puis des Souzy y chassaient à courre. Les princes d’Orléans y chassent aussi à tir avec leurs voisins et amis. À partir de 1924, c’est une société de chasse qui est constituée et qui organise des chasses de sangliers, de cerfs et de chevreuils. Réquisitionnée par les Allemands pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, la chasse fut ensuite réorganisée sous la direction du baron Petiet et connut de nouveau des tableaux exceptionnels.
La vocation cynégétique de ce massif exige des forestiers de conserver un équilibre sylvocynégétique. Ce massif a servi de lieu d’étude de la sélectivité et disponibilité des plantes pour les cervidés. Un indice de sélectivité a été mesuré à 3 reprises pour 19 ligneux et semi-ligneuses fréquent dans le massif, et présents sur un réseau de placettes d’échantillonnage choisies hors zones récemment exploitées. On a ainsi montré que les cervidés ont préféré le rosier des champs et les cornouillers (mâle et sanguin). Ils ont au contraire évité l’érable champêtre, l’aubépine, le bois-gentil / bois-joli, le hêtre, le camérisier, les chênes, l’alisier et la viorne lantane.

Gail R. Martin

May 31st, 2016

Gail Roberta Martin (* 1944 in New York City) ist eine US-amerikanische Embryologin und Entwicklungsbiologin und emeritierte Professorin an der University of California, San Francisco (UCSF).

Martin wuchs in New York City auf. Sie studierte zunächst an der University of Wisconsin–Madison (Abschluss 1964) und erwarb 1971 bei Harry Rubin an der University of California, Berkeley einen PhD. Sie arbeitete als Postdoktorandin bei Martin Evans am University College London und ab 1975 bei Charles J. Epstein an der University of California, San Francisco, zu deren Lehrkörper sie seit 1976 zählte. Zuletzt hatte sie eine Professur in der Abteilung für Anatomie inne und leitete das dortige Graduiertenprogramm in Entwicklungsbiologie.
In frühen Arbeiten befasste sich Martin mit Stammzellen, für deren Isolierung und Kultivierung sie Verfahren entwickelte. Der Begriff „embryonale Stammzelle“ wurde durch sie geprägt.
An der UCSF befasste sich Martin damit, wie beim Wirbeltier im Embryo die Ausreifung der Organanlagen organisiert ist. In Tierversuchen auf molekularer und zellulärer Ebene konnte sie wesentlich zur Aufklärung der Bedeutung der Mitglieder der Familie der Fibroblasten-Wachstumsfaktoren (FGF) und ihrer Antagonisten (Gegenspieler) beitragen, insbesondere bei der Extremitätenentwicklung und der frühen Entwicklung des Gehirns.
Zu ihren zahlreichen Doktoranden und Postdoktoranden zählt auch der Molekularbiologe George M. Church. Gail R. Martin ist mit dem Briten Steven Martin verheiratet.

Lemma della farfalla

May 31st, 2016

Il lemma della farfalla è un risultato utilizzato nell’algebra.
Siano e due sottogruppi di un Gruppo , siano e sottogruppi normali di e rispettivamente, allora:
I gruppi quozienti inoltre risultano isomorfi:
Una possibile dimostrazione del Lemma e’:
Si verifica che H(U∩K) é normale in H(U∩V).
Si può osservare che U∩K é normale in U∩V, infatti ∀ k∈U∩K e ∀ v∈U∩V si ha:
vkv^(-1) ∈K perché K é normale in V
vkv^(-1) ∈U perché k e v ∈ U
poiché ∀ gruppo ė normale in sé si ha che H(U∩K) ė normale in H(U∩V).
Si verifica che (H∩V)K é normale in (U∩V)K.
Si può osservare che H∩V é normale in U∩V, infatti per ∀ k∈H∩V e ∀ v∈U∩V si ha:
vkv^(-1) ∈U perché H é normale in U
vkv^(-1) ∈V perché k e v ∈V
Poiché per ∀ gruppo ė normale in sé si ha che (H∩V)K é normale in (U∩V)K.
La combinazione di gruppi e gruppi quoziente diventa chiara quando la visualizziamo nel diagramma di sottogruppi che dá il nome al Lemma:
Nel diagramma sono dati H, K, U e V, tutti gli altri punti del diagramma corrispondono a certi gruppi che si possono determinare nel modo seguente:
• L’intersezione di due segmenti che vanno verso il basso corrispondono all’intersezione di gruppi;
• L’intersezione di due linee che vanno verso l’alto corresponde al prodotto.
Consideriamo i due parallelogrammi che formano le ali della farfalla, otteniamo l’isomorfismo dei gruppi quoziente come segue:
(H(U∩V))/(H(U∩K))≅(U∩V)/((H∩V)(U∩K))≅(U∩V)K/(H∩V)K
Infatti il lato in comune ai due parallelogrammi ha come punto iniziale U∩V,
e come punto finale (H∩V)(U∩K). Si ha l’isomorfismo:
(H(U∩V))/(H(U∩K))≅(U∩V)/((H∩V)(U∩K))
Applicando il teorema di isomorfismo:
G/((G∩N))≅GN/N
Con G=U∩V e N =H(U∩K).
Questo ci dá l’isomorfismo di sinistra.
L’isomorfismo di destra si ottiene per simmetria.
Da cui (H(U∩V))/(H(U∩K))≅(U∩V)K/(H∩V)K
Q.E.D.
Algebra Lineare

Wayne Babych

May 31st, 2016

modifier
Wayne Babych (né le 6 juin 1958 à Edmonton dans l’Alberta au Canada) est un ancien joueur professionnel de hockey sur glace. Son frère cadet, Dave a également été joueur de hockey professionnel.

Il commence sa carrière dans la Ligue de hockey de l’Ouest du Canada en jouant pour l’équipe de sa ville natale les Oil Kings d’Edmonton. Par la suite il suit la franchise – ne pouvant rivaliser avec les Oilers d’Edmonton de la Ligue nationale de hockey – quand elle déménage à Portland dans l’Oregon pour devenir les Winter Hawks de Portland.
En 1978, il participe au repêchage amateur de la Ligue nationale de hockey et est choisi en première ronde et troisième choix au total par les Blues de Saint-Louis. Il commence cette même saison dans la LNH et joue alors avec Bernie Federko et Brian Sutter. Il reste avec les Blues jusqu’au début de la saison 1984-85.
Laissé libre par les Blues il rejoint alors les Penguins de Pittsburgh en plein reconstruction notamment avec l’arrivée de Mario Lemieux au sein de la franchise.
Il reste avec les Penguins une petite saison avant de rejoindre les Nordiques de Québec au cours de la saison 1985-86. Il ne joue cependant pas beaucoup sous ses nouvelles couleurs et il quitte cette même saison les Nordiques pour jouer avec les Whalers de Hartford en retour de Greg Malone.
Il met fin à sa carrière professionnelle la saison suivante.
Pour les significations des abréviations, voir Statistiques du hockey sur glace.
Il représente le Canada lors du championnat du monde junior en 1978 ainsi que lors du championnat du monde l’année suivante. En 1978 avec les juniors, il remporte une médaille de bronze.

Villa Lagarina

May 31st, 2016

Villa Lagarina – miejscowość i gmina we Włoszech, w regionie Trydent-Górna Adyga, w prowincji Trydent.
Według danych na rok 2004 gminę zamieszkuje 3129 osób, 130,4 os./km².
Ala • Albiano • Aldeno • Amblar • Andalo • Arco • Avio • Baselga di Pinè • Bedollo • Bersone • Besenello • Bieno • Bleggio Superiore • Bocenago • Bolbeno • Bondo • Bondone • Borgo Valsugana • Bosentino • Breguzzo • Brentonico • Bresimo • Brez • Brione • Caderzone • Cagnò • Calavino • Calceranica al Lago • Caldes • Caldonazzo • Calliano • Campitello di Fassa • Campodenno • Canal San Bovo • Canazei • Capriana • Carano • Carisolo • Carzano • Castel Condino • Castelfondo • Castello Tesino • Castello-Molina di Fiemme • Castelnuovo • Cavalese • Cavareno • Cavedago • Cavedine • Cavizzana • Cembra • Centa San Nicolò • Cimego • Cimone • Cinte Tesino • Cis • Civezzano • Cles • Cloz • Comano Terme • Commezzadura • Condino • Coredo • Croviana • Cunevo • Daiano • Dambel • Daone • Darè • Denno • Dimaro • Don • Dorsino • Drena • Dro • Faedo • Fai della Paganella • Faver • Fiavè • Fiera di Primiero • Fierozzo • Flavon • Folgaria • Fondo • Fornace • Frassilongo • Garniga Terme • Giovo • Giustino • Grauno • Grigno • Grumes • Imer • Isera • Ivano-Fracena • Lardaro • Lasino • Lavarone • Lavis • Ledro • Levico Terme • Lisignago • Livo • Lona-Lases • Luserna • Malosco • Malè • Massimeno • Mazzin • Mezzana • Mezzano • Mezzocorona • Mezzolombardo • Moena • Molveno • Monclassico • Montagne • Mori • Nago-Torbole • Nanno • Nave San Rocco • Nogaredo • Nomi • Novaledo • Ospedaletto • Ossana • Padergnone • Palù del Fersina • Panchià • Peio • Pellizzano • Pelugo • Pergine Valsugana • Pieve Tesino • Pieve di Bono • Pinzolo • Pomarolo • Pozza di Fassa • Praso • Predazzo • Preore • Prezzo • Rabbi • Ragoli • Revò • Riva del Garda • Romallo • Romeno • Roncegno • Ronchi Valsugana • Roncone • Ronzo-Chienis • Ronzone • Rovereto • Roverè della Luna • Ruffrè • Rumo • Sagron Mis • Samone • San Lorenzo in Banale • San Michele all’Adige • Sant’Orsola Terme • Sanzeno • Sarnonico • Scurelle • Segonzano • Sfruz • Siror • Smarano • Soraga • Sover • Spera • Spiazzo • Spormaggiore • Sporminore • Stenico • Storo • Strembo • Strigno • Taio • Tassullo • Telve • Telve di Sopra • Tenna • Tenno • Terlago • Terragnolo • Terres • Terzolas • Tesero • Tione di Trento • Ton • Tonadico • Torcegno • Trambileno • Transacqua • Tres • Trydent • Tuenno • Valda • Valfloriana • Vallarsa • Varena • Vattaro • Vermiglio • Vervò • Vezzano • Vignola-Falesina • Vigo Rendena • Vigo di Fassa • Vigolo Vattaro • Villa Agnedo • Villa Lagarina • Villa Rendena • Volano • Zambana • Ziano di Fiemme • Zuclo

The Kill-Off

May 31st, 2016

The Kill-Off is a 1990 neo-noir written and directed by Maggie Greenwald, based on a 1957 novel of the same name by Jim Thompson. It was an independent film, produced by Lydia Dean Pilcher and shot by Declan Quinn.

The film is set in a small coastal community in New Jersey where the only action in town is a nightclub called The Pavilion. The owner, Pete (played by Jackson Sims), can barely make the payroll so in an effort to bring in more business, he hires a sultry stripper named Danny Lee (Cathy Haase).
Danny Lee’s act soon turns the head of Ralph, which is not good news for his bed-ridden wife Luanne (Loretta Gross). Luanne’s nasty talent is her gift for gossip, and when she begins to suspect that Ralph has adultery on his mind, she starts spreading more ugly rumors that have just enough basis in fact to stick. Soon things spin out of control and a wave of violence begins.
The Kill-Off was a part of the so-called Jim Thompson revival in the early 1990s. At that time, the film was one of three Jim Thompson novel adaptations to be made into a film within one year. The others were The Grifters and After Dark, My Sweet.
This neo-noir is very darkly filmed by Declan Quinn and at times the images shot of anyone more than a few feet from the camera can be difficult to see. As such, it mirrors the stylistic photography of the film noirs of the 1940s and 1950s.
The filming locations include: The Keansburg Amusement Park, Keansburg, New Jersey; and other locations in New Jersey.
The film received some good press. Critic Peter Travers, writing for Rolling Stone, called the film, “…a down-and-dirty thriller…”. And film critic Marjorie Baumgarten liked the film and the direction of Maggie Greenwald and wrote in the Austin Chronicle, “[the] protagonists and pernicious moral rot are well-captured in Greenwald’s film version of The Kill-Off. The milieu is compellingly perverse, and Greenwald and the actors get the seedy tone just right.”
The New York Times was less impressed with the film. Critic Caryn James wrote, “[Thompspon’s lurid drama] is tossed away by Ms. Greenwald’s flaccid script and scenes so badly paced that the actors seem to be holding their breath between lines, waiting for their next cues”
Wins
Nominations
The producers used the following tagline when marketing the film:
The film premiered at the Toronto Film Festival on September 12, 1989. Later, it was shown at the Sundance Film Festival and Maggie Greenwald was awarded the Dramatic Grand Jury Prize. The film opened in a limited release on October 19, 1990 in New York City but it was never widely shown. The film was not released onto videocassette in the United States until 2001, when Xenon Entertainment released it onto VHS. The film has yet to premiere onto DVD.
Thompson’s noted style was his ironic plots and language, yet Greenwald’s film eliminates many of the intertwined plots that run through the book and contains very little of its dialogue. In addition, the film differs from the book in a few ways. First, the movie shows us who the murderer is where the book leaves that a mystery. Second, the movie also spares one of the characters that the book does not, thus turning the character into a moral center.

Priest Holmes

May 31st, 2016

Priest Anthony Holmes (born October 7, 1973) is a former American football running back who played eleven seasons in the National Football League (NFL). He played college football for the University of Texas. He was signed by the Baltimore Ravens as an undrafted free agent in 1997.
Holmes earned a Super Bowl ring with the Ravens in Super Bowl XXXV. After rushing for just over 2,000 yards in four seasons in Baltimore, Holmes experienced breakout success after signing with the Kansas City Chiefs as a free agent in 2001. During his seven-year stint with the Chiefs, Holmes was a three-time All-Pro, three-time Pro Bowl selection and was named NFL Offensive Player of the Year in 2002. Holmes sat out the 2006 season with a neck injury, and after a brief comeback attempt in 2007 retired from the NFL. Holmes was also inducted into the University of Texas Hall of Honor, and the Texas High School Sports Hall of Fame in 2007.

Priest Anthony Holmes was born in Fort Smith, Arkansas. Although he carries the last name of his biological father, he never met the man, only seeing him for the first time at his funeral. He was raised in San Antonio, Texas by his mother Norma, and stepfather Herman Morris. When he was thirteen years old, Holmes spent a summer in Detroit, Michigan, working for his grandfather’s lawn care service. Working with much older men for twelve hours a day, six days a week, Holmes learned the work ethic that later shaped him as a football player.
Holmes, who had idolized Dallas Cowboys’ running back Tony Dorsett growing up, developed his own elusive running style while playing street football with the children in his neighborhood. Holmes would later attend Marshall High School, where he became a starter for Head Coach David Visentine. As a senior in 1991, Holmes rushed for 2,061 yards and 26 touchdowns. He was named Offensive Player of the Year, and led his team to a runner-up finish in the state championship game, losing to Odessa Permian.
Holmes attended the University of Texas from 1992 to 1996, playing the entire time for John Mackovic. He played in the final seven games of his freshman season, Mackovic’s first as head coach, rushing for 114 yards against Houston. After starting two games and averaging over five yards per carry for the second straight season as a sophomore, Holmes received more significant playing time as a junior. He rushed for 524 yards and five touchdowns, and was named MVP of the Sun Bowl after rushing for 161 yards and four touchdowns in a win against North Carolina. Holmes missed the 1995 season with a knee injury, allowing for the emergence of future Heisman Trophy winner Ricky Williams as the starter. Relegated to third string behind Williams and Shon Mitchell, Holmes scored thirteen touchdowns despite carrying the ball only 59 times. Holmes’ biggest moment came in the inaugural Big 12 Championship Game. Entering the game with a 7-4 record against third-ranked Nebraska, Texas upset the Cornhuskers 37-27, with Holmes rushing for 120 yards and three touchdowns. In Holmes’ final two seasons, Texas posted a record of 16-9, finishing ranked in the Top 25 each season. He rushed for a career total of 1276 yards and 20 touchdowns, averaging 5.1 yards per carry.
After graduating from college, he joined Baltimore Ravens as an undrafted free agent in 1997. In the 1998 season with the Ravens, Holmes rushed for over 1,000 yards (leading the team in rushing) including one 200-plus yard game, the highest single game total of the season. In the 2000 season, he was supplanted as a starter by rookie running back Jamal Lewis. The Ravens won Super Bowl XXXV with Holmes as the game’s second string halfback.
In 2001, Holmes signed an inexpensive contract with the Kansas City Chiefs. In his first season with the Chiefs, he went beyond expectations by becoming the NFL’s leading rusher with 1,555 yards for 2001 NFL season becoming the only undrafted player to do so, until Arian Foster accomplished the feat during the 2010 NFL season.
Despite missing the final two games in the 2002 NFL season because of a hip injury, Holmes rushed for 1,615 yards with 21 touchdowns. In the 2003 season, he broke Marshall Faulk’s NFL record for total touchdowns in a season with 27, which was subsequently broken by Shaun Alexander with 28 total touchdowns in 2005 and later broken by LaDainian Tomlinson with 31 total touchdowns in 2006. Holmes and Emmitt Smith are the only two running backs in NFL history to have back to back seasons with 20 or more rushing touchdowns. On a pace to repeat the feat in 2004, he suffered an injury that ended his season with 14 touchdowns.
Holmes’ 2005 season was also cut short by an injury to his spinal column from a tackle by Shawne Merriman on October 30, 2005. He was replaced for the season by backup Larry Johnson. During the following off-season, new coach Herm Edwards promoted Johnson to the starting position. Holmes’ spinal injury did not heal by the end of the 2006 pre-season, and he was placed on the Chiefs’ Physically Unable to Perform list for the season. Larry Johnson took over full-time as the Chiefs’ starting running back. Throughout the 2006 season, Holmes repeatedly said that he would like to return for at least two or three more seasons in the NFL, but that he would not force a comeback if it could be detrimental to his long term health.
Following encouraging medical tests, Holmes reported to the Chiefs’ training camp in July 2007. However the Chiefs did not include him on the roster at the start of the season, listing him on the non-football injury list instead. Michael Bennett was traded at mid-season, and Holmes returned to the Kansas City roster, beginning practice on October 17, 2007. Holmes then completed the comeback 4 days later, playing in the Chiefs regular season game against the Oakland Raiders, carrying the ball 4 times. Priest made his first start since October 30, 2005 against the San Diego Chargers and played in a home game on November 11, 2007 in a 27-11 loss to the Denver Broncos. Holmes had 20 rushes for 65 yards.
Holmes announced his retirement on November 21, 2007 after re-injuring his neck on the previous Sunday, November 18, in a game vs. the Indianapolis Colts. He retired as the Chiefs’ all-time leader for career rushing touchdowns (76), total touchdowns (83), and career rushing yards (6,070). His rushing yards record has since been broken by Jamaal Charles.
On March 1, 2014, the Chiefs announced Holmes will be inducted into the Chiefs Hall of Fame during the 2014 season. The induction ceremony took place on November 2 at halftime of a game against the New York Jets.
The Priest Holmes Foundation is a recognized organization that is committed to encouraging education and enhancing the lives of children in the community. In 2009, the Foundation awarded 19 scholarships for the first time to San Antonio area high school seniors.[citation needed] The Holmes Family resides in San Antonio, Texas.[citation needed]

SV Jungingen

May 31st, 2016

Der SV Jungingen (vollständiger Name: Sportverein Jungingen 1946 e.V.) ist ein Sportverein aus dem gleichnamigen Stadtteil der Stadt Ulm. Der Verein wurde am 1. April 1946 gegründet und hat aktuell rund 1.350 Mitglieder. Sportliche Aushängeschilder sind das Damen-Basketballteam und die Frauenfußballabteilung. Deren erste Mannschaften spielte zuletzt 2013/14 und 2014/15 in der Oberliga Baden-Württemberg.

Die Basketballabteilung wurde 1993 gegründet und nimmt seitdem mit Herren- und Damenmannschaften unter dem Namen Jungingen Roosters am Spielbetrieb teil. Die Damenmannschaft spielt dabei seit mehreren Jahren in der Oberliga – der höchsten Spielklasse in Baden-Württemberg.
1978 wurde eine Frauenfußballmannschaft gegründet. In den ersten Jahren trug man nur Freundschaftsspiele aus, bevor 1981 die ersten Punktspiele folgten. Der erste Erfolg war der Aufstieg in die Bezirksstaffel 1988. 1996 stieg die Mannschaft in die Verbandsliga Württemberg auf. Es folgten die Aufstiege in die Oberliga Baden-Württemberg im Jahre 2000 und weiter in die Regionalliga Süd 2002. In der Regionalliga wurde die Mannschaft zweimal in Folge Vizemeister. 2004 gehörte der Verein zu den Gründungsmitgliedern der 2. Bundesliga.
Die Saison in der 2. Bundesliga verlief unglücklich. Am letzten Spieltag gewann die Mannschaft zwar mit 4:1 gegen den Karlsruher SC, musste aber aufgrund des schlechteren Torverhältnisses gegenüber den punktgleichen FC Erzgebirge Aue und Karlsruher SC absteigen. Die stark verjüngte Mannschaft stieg in der folgenden Saison auch aus der Oberliga Baden-Württemberg wieder ab. In der Saison 2005/06 spielte der SV Jungingen zum bisher einzigen Mal im DFB-Pokal. Man scheiterte aber bereits in der 1.Runde am FC Erzgebirge Aue. In der Saison 2012/13 wurde die Damenmannschaft Verbandsliga-Meister und spielt damit ab der Saison 2013/14 wieder in der Oberliga. 2014/15 folgte der erneute Abstieg in die Verbandsliga Württemberg.
Die Herrenmannschaft des SV Jungingen spielt in der Bezirksliga Donau/Iller.
Boule/Leichtathletik, Freizeitsport, Gymnastik, Tennis, Gesundheitssport

Eve Harlow

May 31st, 2016

Eve Harlow (born 20 June 1989 in Moscow, Russia) is a Canadian film and television actress known for her portrayal of Tina Renwald in 2008–09 television series The Guard, and Maya Vie in season two of the television series The 100.

In 2008 Harlow appeared a science fiction miniseries The Andromeda Strain. She also showed up in a 4 Leo Awards winning short film Paul Pontius and was cast as Tina Renwald in a Canadian television series The Guard. For this role Harlow won Leo Award for Best Supporting Performance by a Female in a Dramatic Series in 2009 and was nominated for Gemini Award in 2010.
In 2009 she made small appearance in films like 2012 and Jennifer’s Body
In 2010 Harlow appeared in one episode of Shattered alongside her The 100 co-star Richard Harmon.
In 2014 actress appeared in several television shows like Fargo, Bitten, The Killing, Lost Girl and was cast as Maya Vie in the second season of The CW show The 100.
In 2015 it was announced that Harlow is joining the cast of upcoming television miniseries Heroes Reborn as recurring role Taylor Kravid .
Harlow also appeared in new Lifetime series UnREAL as Bethany, the roommate of the main character Rachel Goldberg, portrayed by Shiri Appleby.

Worshipful Company of Spectacle Makers

May 31st, 2016

The Worshipful Company of Spectacle Makers is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London, UK.
The Company was founded by a Royal Charter of Charles I in 1629 AD; it was granted the status of a Livery Company in 1809. The Company was empowered to set regulations and standards for optical devices; this was eroded by the Industrial Revolution, after which mechanical advancements made trade restrictions difficult to enforce.

The Company acquired the right, however, to set examinations that opticians had to pass before practising. The opticians that successfully passed the examinations were designated F.S.M.C. and this credential stood for Fellowship in Optometry of the Worshipful Company of Spectacle Makers.
This power was surrendered to the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (now titled the College of Optometrists) in 1979, who took over the examination of optometrists, and in 1986 power of examination for dispensing opticians was surrendered to the Association of British Dispensing Opticians (ABDO).
In 1986, the power of examination for dispensing opticians was surrendered to the Association of British Dispensing Opticians (ABDO). Now, the Spectacle Makers’ Company supports charities, including Vision Aid Overseas, and research in the field of optics and conducts training and professional development including the two-year correspondence course for optical technicians that has national accredication in the British National Qualifications Framework.
The Spectacle Makers’ Company ranks sixtieth in the order of precedence for Livery Companies.

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